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^£i&e laf/us 





Louis Felberman 

Author of "Hungary and Its People," etc. 










9 9,1 









Published by gracious permission of His Majesty 

From a photograph by Messrs. W. and D. Downey 


Oisr the occasion of the wedding of Their Majesties 
I had the honour of publishing a little volume 
dealing with the history of the Rhedey family, the 
maternal ancestors of His Highness the late Duke 
of Teck ; and by special permission I was privileged 
to dedicate it to His Highness. 

The subject proved fascinating to me in so many 
ways that I was led to make further researches in 
the history of this illustrious family, who trace their 
descent from the royal House of Aba, and are 
closely connected with the dynasty of Arpad. 

Access to the original Hungarian MS. of the 
genealogical history of the House of Rhedey, 
specially prepared for the Duke of Teck by Dr. 
Sandor, Paris, by order of His Excellency, Privy 
Councillor Count Samu Teleki, and to the archives 
connected with the Rhedey family, kindly placed 
at my disposal by different Hungarian towns, has 
enabled me to considerably increase the scope of 
my former work. I venture to hope that what I 
have written may commend itself to the public at 
the moment when the entire British Empire — nay, 
the whole civilised world — awaits with the most 
sympathetic interest Their Majesties' Coronation. 

Though the main purpose of this volume is to 
deal with the Hungarian ancestors of Her Majesty, 
yet a short outline of the history of the House of 



Wurtemberg, from which Her Majesty descends on 
the paternal side, will not be out of place, indeed, is 
indispensable to justify the title of the work. 

I have also included a short account relating to 
the illustrious Houses of Bathory, Apaffy, Bethlen, 
Zrinyi, Rakdczy, Banffy, Wesselenyi, Teleki, and 
other great families of Hungary, who either 
descended from the same stock as the Rhedeys or 
were closely related to them. 

I append a list of the authorities I have con- 
sulted, and it will be seen that I have taken as my 
guides the most approved ancient and modern 
Hungarian historians. I have also availed myself 
of a number of works of reference both in the 
English and other languages, which I herewith 
gratefully acknowledge. 

In conclusion, I consider it my special duty 
to express my indebtedness to Mr. Charles 
Rimler, the Burgomaster of Nagy Varad, in sending 
me such an exhaustive account of Nagy Varad 
and the Rhedey family drawn from the archives 
of the County of Bihar. I regret that the space at 
my disposal does not permit me to publish this 
interesting collection in its entirety, but the in- 
formation contained therein was of the utmost use 
to me in preparing this work. With a view of 
showing how sacredly the memory of the Rhedey 
family is preserved, I cannot do better than repro- 
duce the translation of the letter of the Burgomaster 
to me on the subject. 

June 21 

Translation of Letter received by the Author from 
the Burgomaster of Nagy Vdrad 

Dear Sir, — 

In reply to your letter of the 25th ult., 
addressed to me, asking me to send you copies of 
the archives of the County of Bihar in connection 
with the Rhedey family, as well as other relics that 
may be in possession of the County, I have the 
honour to inform you that, bearing in mind the 
noble object of the work, and also remembering 
with gratitude what the town of Nagy Varad owes 
to the Rhedey family, who have been its great 
benefactors, I have given the necessary orders that 
the material in question shall be sent to you in 
its most complete form. I send herewith also 
eighteen photographs of the Rhedey family relics, 
specially taken for your work, as well as a short 
account of the history of Nagy Varad and its close 
connection with the Rhedey family, which has been 
specially prepared for your work by the Chief 
Librarian of the County of Bihar. 

Assuring you of my highest esteem, I have the 
honour to remain, with friendly greetings, 

(Signed) Charles Rimler 
Louis Felberman, Esq. 


In preparation of this work I have consulted the following 
recognised Hungarian authorities on the history of Hungary : — 

Anonymus Notarius, Gesta Hung. 

Turoczi, Historia Regum Hungaricorum. 

Codex Diplomaticus Hungariae (Fejer). 

Aba Samu Kiraly (King Samu Aba), by Kandra Kabos. 

Aba Kiraly (King Aba), by Prof. S. Marki. 

St. Margit (St. Margaret of Scotland), by Dr. Jozsef Rezbanyay. 

Magyar Szentek (Saints of Hungary), by F. Toldy. 

Dr. Horvath (Mindly). 

Dr. Szalay (Laszlo). 

Prof. Sebestyen (Gyula). 

Prof. Marki (Sandor). 

Prof. Marczali (Henry). 

Prof. Szilagyi (Alexander). 

For the various family histories and romances dealt with I have 
consulted the works of the following authors : — 

Bathory (Gabor) — Baron Josika. 

Apaffy (Mihaly) — Maurice Jokai. 

Teleki Mihaly — Maurice Jokai. 

Thokoli (Imre) — Maurice J6kai. 

Bhedey (Ferencz III.) — Maurice Jokai. 

Rakoczy Ferencz II. — Prof. S. Marki. 

Bathory (Erzsebet) — Ferencz Nadasdy. 

(Masodik Rakoczy, Ferencz Elete)— Count Miklos Bethlen. 

(Life of Ferencz Rakoczy II.). 

Bethlen (Katalin) — Countess K. Bethlen. 


A Tornaj nemzetsegbeli Banffy esalad Tortenete (The Origin of the 

Banffy Family), by Varga. 
Vaik Stephen and Gisela, by Dr. R. Rotter. 

Amongst the Hungarian works of reference, I am specially 
indebted to the information obtained in the Pallas Lexicon, and 
also to the following English Works : — 

The Historian's History of the World. Edited by Henry Smith 

Williams, LL.D. Published by the " Times." 
The Encyclopaedia Britannica. 
Chambers' Encyclopaedia. 
Lives of the Saints, by the Rev. Alban Butler. 
Life of St. Elizabeth, by Montalembert (Count). Translated by 

Mary Hackett. 

For Wiirtemberg I have consulted : — 

Belschner (C), Geschichte von Wiirtemberg. 
Moser Geschichte von Wiirtemberg. 




The ancient House of Z&hringen — Berthold I. of Zahringen — 
Berthold II., Duke of Helvetia — Conrad of Zahringen 
sides with Welf of the House of Guelph in the battle 
of Weinsberg — Berthold V. of Zahringen, founder of the 
city of Berne — The Counts of Wurtemberg — Ulrich the 
founder (1241-65) — Eberhard the Illustrious — Relation- 
ship between Rudolph of Habsburg and the Counts of 
Wurtemberg — The Dukes of Austria grant a part of 
the Burg of Teck to Eberhard V., Count of Wurtemberg, 
and afterwards the whole to Ulrich III. — Foundation of 
the Duchy of Wurtemberg (1495) by Eberhard V. sur- 
named im Bart — Wurtemberg and the Thirty Years' 
War — The Dukes of Wurtemberg from the creation of 
the Duchy — Foundation of the Kingdom of Wurtemberg 
—Duke Frederick (1797-1816) becomes first King of 
Wurtemberg — Frederick I. (1805) — King William of 
Wurtemberg (1816-64)— King Charles I. (1864-91) — 
Family ties of the House of Wurtemberg — The origin of 
the Ducal House of Teck ...... 


Her Majesty's Hungarian descent — The Royal House of. 
Arpad — Its connection with the Polish Royal House of 
Piast and the other ruling houses of Europe — The empire 
of Attila — The dream of Emese — The birth of Almos — 
The House of Aba — Samu Aba, Palatine of Hungary — 
His bravery and popularity — Desire of nation for St. 
Stephen to appoint Aba as his successor — Queen Gizela 
supports claim of Duke Peter — Peter elected King at the 
death of St. Stephen (1038)— Rising against Peter (1041) 
— Samu Aba defeats King Peter and becomes King of 




Hungary — Samu Aba at war with the Emperor Henry III. 
— King Samu Aba invades and defeats Germany — The 
Emperor's repeated invasions of Hungary — Defeat of 
Aba at Menfo — Peter again king — Aba's great wealth — 
Aba's generosity — Family legends, the Yeresmart or Saar 
legend — King Aba's Tears — Duke Geza and St. Adalbert 
— The noble life of St. Stephen, Apostolic King — The 
Legend of the Crown of Hungary — Eadmund Ironside's 
children in Hungary — The Hungarian origin of St. 
Margaret of Scotland — The "Terra Britannorum" in 
Hungary — Boleslaw I., King of Poland, surnamed 
" Chrobry " the Lion-hearted — His relation to the Royal 
House of Arpad — The Emperor Otto III. visits Boleslaw 
and creates him king — Boleslaw's great wars with 
Bohemia, Germany, and Russia — The Aba family — 
Godfrey de Bouillon's visit to Hungary . . .12 


Hungary under the Arpad kings — St. Ladislaus (1077-1095), 
the conqueror of Croatia — King Kalman (1005-1114), 
conqueror of Dalmatia (1105)— Bela II. (1131-1141), 
ally of Guelph against Conrad III. — Geza II. (1141- 
1161) defeats Leopold of Austria (1146) — Andrew II. 
(1205-1235), leads a Crusade (1217)— Granted the 
Golden Bull, the "Magna Charta" of Hungary (1222) — 
Bela IV. (1235-70)— Tartar invasion of Hungary (1241- 
42) — Bela defeats Duke Frederick of Babenberg(1246) — 
Stephen V. (1270-1272) becomes connected with the 
House of Anjou — Ladislaus IV. (1272-90) becomes the 
ally of Rudolph of Habsburg (1277)— Defeats Ottoker II., 
King of Bohemia (1278) — Extinction of the male line of 
the House of Arpad (1301). The House of Anjou — 
Charles Robert (1308-42), King of Hungary — Introduces 
reforms — Louis the Great (1342-82) occupies Naples — 
Conquers Moldavia, Bulgaria, Servia, Bosnia and 
Wallachia — Poland becomes united to Hungary (1370) 
— Maria and the Emperor Sigismund joint rulers of 
Hungary (1382-95) — Hedwiga, daughter of Louis the 




Great, marries Uladislaus Jagiello, Duke of Lithuania, 
founder of the Jagiello dynasty in Poland — War between 
the kings of Hungary and Poland — Turks threaten in- 
vasion — John Hunyady the hero — Defeats the Turks in 
many battles — King Matthias (1458-90) — Defeat of the 
Hungarians at Mohacs (1526) — Death of King Louis II. 
— The Turks become masters of the Danube region to 
thecastleof Buda — The Habsburg Dynasty — Ferdinand I. 
of Habsburg and John Szapolyai, rival kings — Division 
of Hungary (1538) — Independence of Transylvania 
declared — Emperor Maximilian's claim contested by 
Sigismond, son of Szapolyai — Maximilian on the death 
of Sigismond (1571) becomes sole king — Stephen Bathory 
elected Prince of Transylvania — Desperate struggles with 
the Turks — National Heroes — George Szondy's heroism 
at Dregely (1552) — Miklos Zrinyi's noble defence of 
Szigetvar and tragic end (1566) — Religious persecutions 
— Revolt of Stephen Bocskay against Emperor Rudoph I. 
— The Thirty Years' War — Gabor Bethlen, Prince of 
Transylvania, aids the cause of the Protestants — The 
Wesselenyi Conspiracy — The suppression of the Hun- 
garian Constitution — Rising under Imre Thokoli — 
Bombardment of Vienna (1683) — Its relief by John 
Sobieski, King of Poland — Prince Charles of Lorraine 
— Recapture of Buda from the Turks (1686) — Revolution 
headed by Francis Rakoczy II. — Joseph I. (1705-11) 
re-establishes the Hungarian Constitution — The Treaty 
of Szatmar (1711) — Rakoczy II. becomes an exile — The 
Pragmatic Sanction — Maria Theresia (1740-80) appeals 
to the chivalry of the Hungarians — The historic Diet of 
Pozsony (Pressburg) — Joseph II. (1780-90) emancipates 
the peasantry — Emperor Francis I. (1792-1835) — Wars 
with Napoleon I.— Ferdinand V. (1835-1848)— The 
War of Independence (1848) — Abdication of the 
Emperor Ferdinand — Succeeded by Francis Joseph I. 
— Reconciliation in 1867 — Formation of the Dual 
Monarchy — Francis Joseph crowned King of Hungary 
(1867) 43 





The House of Rhedey — Foundation of the Rhedey family 
(1199) — Janos (John) Rhedey I. distinguishes himself 
during the rule of Andreas II. — Aba Demeter ac- 
companies Andreas II. to the Holy Land — Aba Abolbad 
acts as homo regis in the reign of Bela IV. (1235-70) — 
The Rhedey family during the rule of the Angevin 
kings of Hungary — Jakob Rhedey (1397) acts as homo 
regis for King Sigismund — Peter Rhedey III. conducts 
peace negotiations between Uladislaus, King of Poland, 
and Elizabeth, Queen of Hungary (1442) — Janos III. 
(1437-85), Waiwode of Transylvania — Heroic defence at 
Eger by the Rhedey family (1541) — Ferencz I. and 
Pal IV.— Ferencz Rhedey II. (1556-1621) lays the 
foundation of the glory of the house — Defends the rights 
of the Protestants — Ferencz Rhedey III., Prince of 
Transylvania — His noble qualities — Rhedey relics in the 
possession of Her Majesty and the Duke of Teck — The 
siege of four thousand women — How Rhedey outwitted 
Taltossy 62 


The Transylvanian Branch of the House of Rhedey — 
Janos V. — Janos VII. — Adam III. — Laszlo XIII. 
— Marriage of Countess Claudia Rhedey to Prince 
Alexander of Wurtemburg — Janos X. — The last of the 
Rhedeys — The female survivors of the House of Rhedey 87 


The House of Bathory — The sword of Bathory — Miklos Bathory 
— Andreas Bathory — Stephen Bathory, King of Poland, 
1575-86 — Stephen Bathory founds the Cossack Regiment 
— 'Andreas, Cardinal Prince Bathory — The last of the 
Bathorys — Zsofia (Sophia) Bathory — Elizabeth Bathory . 98 





The Bethlen Family — Gabriel Bethlen, Prince of Transylvania 
(1580-1629)— Gabriel Bethlen defends the rights of the 
Protestants — Bethlen forms an alliance with the Elector 
Frederick V. against the Emperor — Gabriel Bethlen 
elected King of Hungary — Concludes peace with Emperor 
(1621) after the defeat of Elector Frederick at the White 
Mountains — Miklos Bethlen (1640-1716) takes part in 
the Thokoli rising — The Diploma Leopoldinum — Ilona 
Bethlen's romance — A crown for love — A Prince's love 
rejected — Love rewarded . . . . . .109 


The House of Apaffy — Apaffy I. — Michael Teleki, the great 
Chancellor — Apaffy's wife, Anne Bornemisza — Apaffy's 
policy with the Turks — Compelled to be Prince — Princess 
Apaffy and the Sultan's ambassador — Apaffy's court 
jester ......... 130 


The Teleki Family — Count Samu Teleki — Count Sandor Teleki 
— Count Jozsef Teleki — Count Adam Teleki — Michael 
Teleki, Chancellor of Transylvania — Prince Apaffy — The 
Teleki and Thokoli feud — Thokoli outwits the German 
forces — Death of Teleki . . . . . .151 


Francis Rakoczy II. — Rakoczy and the Emperor Joseph I. — 
The Treaty of Szatmar — Constitutional rights of Hungary 
guaranteed — Rakoczy becomes an exile — Rakoczy in 
England — Queen Anne sympathises with him — Boling- 
broke prevents his visit to the English Court — Rakoczy 
leaves for France — His warm reception at the French 
Court — His long sojourn in France — Rakoczy's departure 
for Turkey and death at Rodosto . . . .159 

xvii b 




The Wesselenyi Family — Ferencz Wesselenyi — Palatine of 
Hungary — Maria Szechi, the Venus of Murany, and 
"Wesselenyi — The Wesselenyi Conspiracy — Death of 
Wesselenyi — Maria Wesselenyi's bravery — The Castle 
of Murany — The Saxe-Coburg-Gotha-Kohary family — 
Baron Miklos Wesselenyi — His son Baron Miklos — His 
association with Stephen Szechenyi — His liberal ideas, 
anecdote of Wesselenyi and the Emperor — Wesselenyi's 
staunch patriotism — Is imprisoned — His death — Baron 
Wesselenyi, the guardian of the crown of St. Stephen — 
Baroness Istvan Wesselenyi — Baroness de Horvath . 167 


The Banffy Family — Lukacs Banffy — Miklos Banffy — Denes 
Banffy, brother-in-law of Prince Apaffy — His execution — 
GybYgy Banffy sent to England — Baron Dezso Banffy . 176 


The Szemere Family — Pal Szemere and the poet Kazinczy — 
Bertalan Szemere and the War of Independence — His 
adventures with the Crown of Hungary — The Memorial 
Chapel at Orsova — Attila Szemere . . . .181 


The Karolyi Family — Count Alois Karolyi — Countess Nandine 

Karolyi — The Karolyi estates — A Guelph legend recalled 183 


The Ancient Homes of the House of Aba — The Hungarian 
Danube towns — Mosony — Gyor — The Great Benedictine 
Monastery of Pannonhalma — Godfrey de Bouillon in 
Hungary — Marriages with Crusade leaders — The in- 




gratitude of the Crusaders for Hungarian hospitality — 
Doge Dandolo's bargain — Szent Marton — Komarom — ■ 
Pozsony (Pressburg) — Esztergom — Vacz — Visegrad — 
Budapest ........ 186 


The Balaton Lake District — Balaton Fiired — Jokai's descrip- 
tion of the beauties of Balaton — Local legends — The 
convent of Tihany — Keszthely — Legends of the two hills 
— The fogas of Balaton — Veszprem — Queen Gisela and the 
Aethelings — -The Bakony forest — The Hungarian Robin 
Hood — King Aba and the cottager . . . .197 


The Northern Highlands of Hungary — The Slovak country — 
The Slovaks — Their characteristics — The Vag Valley — Its 
great beauty — Its many castles — The castle of Trencsen 
— The legend of its well — Elizabeth Bathory's cruelty — 
The High Tatra — Its exquisite beauty — The three lakes, 
(Red, White and Green) — Legends of the Tatra — 
The fairy carbuncles — The ice cave of Dobsina — The 
three Tatra-Fiireds — Tatra Lomnicz — A Rhedey legend 
— The Zips country — The Thuringians — Locse — St. 
Elizabeth of Hungary — The White Lady of Locse . 204 


Northern Hungary — Memories of Rakoczy — The Story of the 
Rakoczy March — Gipsy Czinka Panna — Kassa, its 
importance — King Matthias borrows two florins . . 227 


The North-east of Hungary — The birthplace of Kossuth and 
Andrassy — The Tokaj vineyards — S. A. Ujhely — Ungvar 
— The Fort of Ung — Munkacs — Its capture by the 
Hungarians — The Zalan legend — Ilona Zrinyi, Hungary's 
heroine — The fort of Huszt, the ancient Burg of the 

xix b 2 



Rhedeys — Maramaros Sziget — The Salt Mines — The 
Tisza and Iza legends — Szatmar — Szabolcs . . .234 


The Cradle Home of the Rhedeys — Fiilek and the Rhedeys 

— Kis and Nagy Rede — Eger and its historic defence . 246 


The Heart of Hungary — Debreczen and its great fairs — 
The Puszta at Hortobagy — Hungarian cowboys — Nagy 
Varad — The Home of the Rhedeys — Count Lajos 
Rhedey II., who was a great benefactor of Nagy Varad 
— The gratitude of the town to the Rhedey family — The 
Kornis family ........ 250 


Transylvania, the pearl of the Hungarian crown — Its great 
beauty — The land of sport — Its mineral wealth — Altar of 
the god Yesten — Ruins of Budavar, Attila's palace — 
Magyars — Szekelys — Saxons — Wallachians — Ancient 
Dacia and its history — The Emperor Trajan and King 
Decebalus — Banffy Hunyad — Kolozsvar — Matthias 
Corvinus — The Rhedey Palace — The village of Bethlen — 
Torda and its antiquities — The great salt lakes — Torda 
glen — Nagy Enyed — The legend of St. Ladislas — The 
village of Toroczko — The Maros Valley — John Hunyady — 
Maros Vasarhely and the Telekis — Erdo Szent Gyorgy, 
the birthplace of Her Majesty's Grandmother — The old 
Parish Church — Memorial tablet erected by Her Majesty 
— The Manor House of the Rhedeys — The legend of the 
ruined castle — The cave of Almas — Elopatak — The Lake 
of St. Anne — Nagy Enyed — The Mining District — Gyula 
Fehervar — The Plains of Kenyermezo, the rendezvous 
of the Crusaders — Nagy Szeben — The Falls of Vizakna — 
Fogaras — Segesvar — The death of Petofi — Brasso . .261 





The Danube Iron Gates — Adakaleh, a Turkish colony — 
Orsova, the crown chapel — Herkules-Fiirdo (Hercules 
Bath)— The Denies of Kazan . . . ' . .281 


The Alfold (Lowlands) — Alfold villages and its pusztas — Its 
characteristics described by Petofi — Hungary since the 
days of Arpad ........ 285 

Genealogical Table, No. 1, showing the descent of Her 
Majesty from the House of Wiirtemberg, and the con- 
nections with other Royal Houses . . facing page 10 

Genealogical Table, No. 2, showing the Hungarian descent 
of the late Duke of Teck from the House of Rhedey, the 
direct descendants of the Royal House of Aba, and the 
connections of that House with the Arpad dynasty, and 
the Polish Royal House of Piast and other ruling Houses 

facing page 16 

Map of Hungary (specially revised by the Secretary of 

the Royal Hungarian Geographical Society) facing page 290 


Pages 11, 95, and Illustrations facing pp. 4, 6, 38, 80, also Table 
of Contents (Chapter V.), List of Illustrations, pp. 291, 309 of 
Index, and in Genealogical Table II, for "Prince" read 
" Duke" Alexander of Wiirtemberg. 

Pages 13, 46, 101, names appearing either as "Jagellon" or 
" Jagiello " are generally spelled in English as " Jagello," 
though a number of Polish and other historians refer to the 
Dynasty as "Jagyello," "Jagiello," or "Jaghello," the name 
of its founder, prior to his conversion to Christianity, having 
been known as " Jagyl " or " Jaghyel." 

Page 40, last line, for " Gresen " read " Gnesen." 

Page 107, line 22, for " Francis Rakoczy II." read " Francis 
Rakoczy I." 



1. Her Majesty Queen Mary. Published by gracious 

permission of Her Majesty . . . Frontispiece 

2. His Majesty King George V. Published by gracious 

permission ....... vii 

3. His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales. Pub- 

lished by gracious permission of Their Majesties . xi 

4. Their Majesties' Children. Published by gracious 

permission of Their Majesties .... xiii 

5. The late Duke and Duchess of Teck and family . . xxiii 

6. The Principal Rulers of Wiirtemberg. (From the founda- 

tion of this State to its creation as a kingdom) . 1 

7. Prince Alexander of Wiirtemberg — father of the late 

Duke of Teck — in Hungarian costume (at the time of 

his engagement to Countess Claudia Rhedey) . . 4 

8. Countess Claudia Rhedey — Her Majesty's Grandmother — 

at the time of her engagement to Prince Alexander 
of Wiirtemberg. From a portrait by kind permission 
of Baroness de Horvath, nee Countess de Rhedey . 6 

9. His Highness the late Duke of Teck (in the uniform of 

an officer of a Huszar Regiment). Published by 
kind permission of H.H. The Duke of Teck . . 8 

10. Princess Claudine of Teck (sister to His Highness the late 

Duke of Teck). Published by kind permission of 
H.H. the Duke of Teck 12 

11. The Crown of St. Stephen. Reproduced from Prof. 

Szilagyi's " History of Hungary " . . . .14 




12. St. Stephen— First King of Hungary— (1000-1038). 

Copied from Prof. Alexander Szilagyi's " History of 
Hungary" .18 

13. (1) King Samu Aba (1041-44). (2) Queen Gisela. 

(3) King Aba sends a message of defiance to the 
Emperor Henry III. (4) Coins of King Aba. 
Copied from the Vienna Chronicles by Velicogna . 20 

14. Gyor, Townhall of. — Gyor, scene near ... 22 

15. Pannonhalma, The Great Benedictine Monastery. — 

Komarom, Townhall. — Pannonhalma, Millennium 
Memorial ....... 26 

16. Veszprem. Where Queen Gisela and the English 

Aethelings resided. — The Monastery of Tihany (Lake 
Balaton) 30 

17. Boleslaw I. (the Lion-Hear ted), King of Poland (999- 

1025). Copied from Prof. Alexander Szilagyi's 

" History of Hungary " . . . . .34 

18. Countess Claudia Rhedey — Her Majesty's Grandmother. 

Reproduced from a painting by kind permission of 
H.H. the Duke of Teck 36 

19. Prince Alexander of Wiirtemberg — Her Majesty's Grand- 

father. Published by special permission of H.H. 

the Duke of Teck 38 

20. His Highness the late Duke of Teck. Published by 

kind permission of His Highness the Duke of Teck . 42 

21. Her Royal Highness Princess Mary Adelaide, the late 

Duchess of Teck. Published by kind permission of 
H.H. the Duke of Teck 44 

22. White Lodge, the home of the late Duke and Duchess 

of Teck 46 

23. H.H. the Duke of Teck, G.C.B., G.C.V.O. ... 48 

24. Her Highness the Duchess of Teck. Published by 

special permission of His Highness the Duke of 
Teck 50 

25. Prince George of Teck. Published by special permission 

of H.H. the Duke of Teck 52 

26. The Children of the Duke and Duchess of Teck. Pub- 

lished by kind permission of H.H. the Duke of Teck 54 


Published by geacious permission of Their Majesties 

Photo by W. and D. Downey 



27. His Serene Highness Prince Alexander of Teck. Pub- 

lished by special permission of His Serene Highness . 56 

28. Her Royal Highness Princess Alexander of Teck. 

Published by gracious permission . . . .58 

29. The Children of Prince and Princess Alexander of Teck. 

Published by kind permission of H.S.H. Prince 
Alexander of Teck . . . . . .60 

30. H.S.H. the late Prince Francis of Teck. Published by 

kind permission of His Serene Highness Prince 
Alexander of Teck . . . . . .62 

31. The Arms of the House of Rhedey .... 64 

32. Ferencz Rhedey, Prince of Transylvania. Published by 

kind permission of H.H. the Duke of Teck . . 66 

33. Swords and pistols formerly the property of Prince 

Rhedey. In the possession of H.H. the Duke of 
Teck * 68 

34. Rhedey Relics. —Pearl Earrings formerly the property of 

Claudia Rhedey, now in possession of Her Majesty 
the Queen. — Plate, formerly the property of Denes 
Banffy, now the property of H.H. the Duke of 
Teck 70 

35. Tapestry chair, and vases, from the collection of His 

Highness, the late Duke of Teck, at White 
Lodge ....... 72 

36. Count Laszlo Rhedey XIII. — Great-Grandfather of Her 

Majesty. Reproduced from a painting by special 
permission of Baroness Odon de Horvath, nee 
Countess de Rhedey . . . . . .76 

37. Countess Laszlo Rhedey — Great-Grandmother of Her 

Majesty. Reproduced from a painting by special 
permission of Baroness Odon de Horvath, nee Countess 
de Rhedey 78 

38. Countess Claudia Rhedey — Her Majesty's grandmother — 

(before her engagement to Prince Alexander of 
Wiirtemberg) ....... 80 

39. Count Janos Rhedey, f 1768. From a miniature pub- 

lished by special permission of the Baroness Odon de 
Horvath, nee Countess de Rhedey . . .88 













Count Janos Rhedey — brother of Her Majesty's great- 
grandfather. Reproduced from a painting by special 
permission of Baroness Odon de Horvath, nee 
Countess de Rhedey . . . . . .90 

Countess Janos Rhedey, nee Josefa Baroness Banffy 
(sister-in-law of Her Majesty's great-grandmother). 
From a portrait by kind permission of Baroness Odon 
de Horvath, nee Countess de Rhedey . . .92 

Memorial Tablet erected by Her Majesty in the Church 
of Erdo Szent Gyorgy. Published with Her Majesty's 
gracious permission . . . . . .96 

Interior of Parish Church at Erdo Szent Gyorgy. (In 
this church is buried Countess Claudia Rhedey, the 
grandmother of Her Majesty) .... 98 

Count Janos Rhedey, j 1 87 2. Reproduced from a painting, 
published by special permission of his daughter, 
Baroness Odon de Horvath, nee Countess de Rhedey 102 
Baroness Michael de Horvath (nee Inczedi) as a child, 
sister to Her Majesty's great-grandmother. — Baron 
Michael de Horvath as a youth. Reproduced from 
portraits by kind permission of Baroness Odon de 
Horvath, nee Countess de Rhedey . . .106 

Baron Odon de Horvath, nephew of Count Laszlo 
Rhedey. Reproduced from a painting by kind 
permission of Baroness de Horvath, nee Countess de 
Rhedey .... ... 110 

Countess Vetter von der Lilie, nee Baroness Katinka de 

Horvath 114 

Countess Charles Attems, nee Baroness de Horvath . 118 
The Fortress of Kiikiillo (Transylvania) . . .126 

The Bastion of Medgyes (Transylvania) . . .130 

Nagy Szeben (Transylvania) . . . . .136 

Brasso (Transylvania) . . . . . .138 

The Fortress of Deva (Transylvania) . . . .142 

Segesvar (Transylvania) . . . . . .146 

Count Samu Teleki (1739-1822), the Founder of the 
Teleki Library at Maros Vasarhely. Published by 
special permission of the present Count Samu Teleki 150 



56. Count Samuel Teleki 152 

57. The old Tower and Church at Nagy Enyed (Transyl- 

vania) ........ 154 

58. Francis Rakoczy II. 160 

59. Princess Rakoczy (wife of Francis Rakoczy II.) . .164 

60. The Castle of Murany. — The ruins of the Castle of 

Makovicza . . . . . . .168 

61. The late Baron Dezso Banffy 178 

62. Pozsony, former capital of Hungary. — Esztergom . 186 

63. Statue of Maria Theresia at Pozsony (by Fadrusz) . 188 

64. View of Budapest, showing Royal Palace of Buda . 190 

65. The Hungarian Houses of Parliament at Budapest . 192 

66. General View of Budapest . . . . .194 

67. One of the Principal Thoroughfares at Budapest . . 196 

68. Szekesfehervar. The ancient city where the Kings of 

the Arpad Dynasty were crowned. — The Castle of 
Siimeg .....'.. 198 

69. The Castle of Count Festetich at Keszthely. — Hot Lake 

at Tapolcza. — Balaton F tired . . . .202 

70. Nyitra (Northern Hungary). In the vicinity of the 

Vag District 204 

71. The Castle of Zolyom.— The Ruins of the Castle of 

Trencsen ........ 206 

72. A Street at Trencsen (Northern Hungary) . . . 208 

73. Tatra Fiired (Northern Highlands, Hungary) . .210 

74. The Lake of Csorba (Northern Highlands, Hungary) . 212 

75. Poprad (Northern Hungary) . . . . .216 

76. The Town of Locse (Northern Hungary) . . .220 

77. The White Lady of Locse. From a portrait in the 

Royal Hungarian Art and Decorative Museum . 224 

78. The Cathedral of Kassa (Northern Hungary) . . 230 

79. Farm House Scene 234 

80. Ungvar. — Harvesting. — The Castle of Munkacs (North- 

East of Hungary) 240 

81. The Parish Church at Kis Rede, the Cradle Home of 

the Rhedeys. The church has been built on the 
site of the former family residence destroyed by the 
Turks 246 



82. Eger. The scene of the earliest struggles of the Rhedeys 

against the Turks. (There is still a mosque left in 
the town.) — Fiilek. The ruins of the former castle 
which was built by the ancestors of Her Majesty, 
and which they so bravely defended against the 
Turks 248 

83. Nagy Yarad (County Bihar). The town has been closely 

associated with the Rhedey family, several members 

of whom resided here . . . . . .252 

84. The River Koros (Bihar) 254 

85. Monumental Effigy of Ferencz Rhedey II. (in his armour) 

as a Polish knight. In the Rhedey Mausoleum of 
Nagy Yarad 256 

86. Count Lajos Rhedey (from the family Mausoleum at 

Nagy Yarad). Reproduced by kind permission of 

the Municipality of Nagy Yarad . . . .258 

87. Countess Lajos Rhedey. Reproduced from an oil 

painting in the family Mausoleum at Nagy 
Yarad 260 

88. The Bihar Mountains 262 

89. Kolozsvar (the capital of Transylvania) . . . 264 

90. Kolozsvar. 1. The Former Rhedey Residence. 2. 

Wesselenyi Street. 3. The Banffy Palace . . 266 

91. Antique Furniture used by Countess Claudia Rhedey at 

the former Rhedey Palace at Kolozsvar . .268 

92. Memorial Tablet erected in the former Rhedey Palace at 

Kolozsvar. (In the memory of Count Janos Rhedey, 

the famous General of Maria Theresia) . . .270 

93. Scene in the Maros Yalley (Transylvania) . . .272 

94. Erdo Szent Gyorgy. The former Manor House of the 

Rhedey family, where Her Majesty's Grandmother 
was born. Published by the courtesy of the Rev. 
JozsefNagy, Yicar of Erdo Szent Gyorgy . . 274 

95. The Torda Glen (Transylvania) . . . .276 

96. Leanyko (Transylvania) . . . . . .278 

97. The Castle of Yajda-Hunyad (the former residence of 

John Hunyadi), Transylvania . . .280 

98. The Defile of Kazan (near the Iron Gates, Hungary) . 282 




99. The Opening of the Iron Gates by His I. and R. Majesty, 

the Emperor-King, in 1896 284 

100. Scene near Herkules Furdo (Hercules Bath), near Iron 

Gates (Hungary) . . . . . .286 

101. A Lowland Peasant Farmer . . . . .288 

Most of the illustrations relating to the historical monuments and the 
scenery of Hungary were published from photos hy Erdely, Court 
Photographer, Budapest, placed at the disposal of the author by the 
Administration of the Boyal Hungarian State Railways. 



As in many cases only the Hungarian Christian names are 
given, for the reason that the persons so described were specially 
identified in history with their Hungarian names, it might not be 
out of place to give here their English equivalent. 

Andreas = Andrew. 

Denes = Dionysius. 

Dezso = Desiderius. 

Farkas = Wolf. 

Ferencz = Francis. 

Gabor = Gabriel. 

Gjorgy = George. 

Ilona, Ilka = Helen, Nelly. 

Imre = Emerick. 

1st van = Stephen. 

Janos = John. 

Josefa == Josephine. 

Jozsef = Joseph. 

Karoly = Charles. 

Kati, or Katinka = Kate. 

Lajos = Louis. 

Laszlo = Ladislaus. 

Lukacs = Lucas. 

Mihaly = Michael. 

Miklos = Nicholas. 

Odon = Edmund. 

Pal = Paul. 

Salamon = Solomon. 

Samu as Samuel. 

Sandor = Alexander. 

Zigismand = Sigismund. 

Note. — The Hussar Regiment which has been founded by King 
Matthias of Hungary is written in Hungarian as Huszar. 

mm— mm 







The ducal family of Teck, as is well known, forms 
part of that of the reigning House of the kingdom 
of Wiirtemberg, both being descended from the 
ancient House of Z&hringen, a family closely related 
to the Guelph and Hohenstaufen dynasties, who were 
also the ancestors on the female side of Rudolph of 
Habsburg, the founder of the Habsburg dynasty. 

The Zahringens had their vast possessions in 
the Duchy of Swabia. The Duchy itself was gene- 
rally granted by the Emperors of the Saxon and 
Franconian Houses to their immediate relations, and 
from the time of the Emperor Frederick of Hohen- 
staufen till that of Conradin (the last of the line, who 
was executed in 1268), it was held by various 
members of the Imperial family. 

The Zahringen family had many distinguished 
members, the first to come into prominence being 
Berthold of Zahringen, Duke of Carinthia. He was 
the great opponent of the Emperor Henry IV. and 
revolted against him in 1073. Berthold II. of 
Zahringen had the Duchy of Helvetia conferred 
upon him in 1097. Conrad of Zahringen was a friend 
and ally of Henry the Proud, and his brother Welf, 

1 B 


of the powerful House of Guelph. In their struggles 
against the Emperor Conrad III., Conrad of Zahringen 
sided with the Guelph princes, the Emperor and his 
nephew, Frederick Barbarossa, taking the field 
against them. 

It was on this occasion, in the year 1140, when 
besieging Welf at Weinsberg, that the famous 
German war-cry of " Kyrie eleison " was exchanged 
for that of " Welfs and Waiblingen," designating 
the struggle between Welf of Altdorf and the 
Imperial House of Hohenstaufen, who had their 
castle at Waiblingen. This war-cry the Italians 
afterwards adapted in their own language as Guelfo 
and Ghibellino, corresponding to the German Welf 
and Waiblingen, and applied it to the Papal and 
Imperial parties of Italy. 

It was at the battle referred to that Welf was 
defeated after a long siege, and was about to sur- 
render. The Emperor Conrad, however, sent word 
to the women of the garrison that they could leave 
the city unmolested, and take with them whatever 
they could carry. Much to the surprise of the 
Emperor and his army, the Duchess, Welfs wife, 
came out from the city gates bearing her husband 
on her shoulders, all the other women following her 
example. This devotion on the women's part 
greatly impressed the Emperor, who, in spite of 
the persuasion of his advisers to the contrary, per- 
mitted the garrison to depart in this way, exclaim- 
ing, " An Emperor must keep his word." 

This same Conrad of Zahringen allied himself 
later with Henry the Lion, son of Henry the Proud, 



and whilst Conrad III. was in the Holy Land they 
devastated the lands of the heathen Wends, executed 
their chiefs, and destroyed their pagan temples at 

Berthold IV. (1152) established many of the 
Swiss towns ; whilst his son, Berthold V., became 
eminent as the founder, in 1191, of the great city of 
Berne, and the free institutions of Switzerland. He 
accompanied the Emperor Frederick I. in the 
Crusades, and, on his return, conquered the Bur- 
gundians. On the extinction of the House of 
Zahringen, Rudolph I. of Habsburg, the founder of 
that illustrious house, inherited the bulk of the 
Zahringen estates, through his mother, who was a 
Countess of Kyburg and a descendant of the 
Zahringens, but a portion thereof was given to the 
Counts of Wurtemberg. 

When, after the death of Conradin in 1268, no 
more Dukes were appointed, the Counts of Wiirtem- 
berg, by right of seniority, assumed the govern- 
ment of the country, as Counts, and secured an 
additional increase of territory. 

Prior to this period very little is known to 
history of the family whose ancestral castle crowns 
one of the hills between Esslingen and Cannstatt. 
Tradition, however, mentions several Counts of 
Wurtemberg, and amongst them a certain Conradin 
de Wirtemberc, who lived in 1090. Another member 
of the family was Johannson of Wurtemberg, who 
in 1138 was sent by Frederick the One-eyed, Duke 
of Swabia, on a mission to Stuttgart to ask the 
hand of the only daughter of the Margrave Rudolph 

3 b 2 


of Baden for his son, Prince Frederick Barbarossa. 
But instead of fulfilling his mission, he seems to have 
become himself enamoured of the princess, who 
encouraged his suit and became his wife, bringing 
him as a dowry the city of Stuttgart. Jakob 
Frischler, the historian, wrote a comedy on the 
subject, published in 1612. 

But the historic founder of the Wiirtemberg 
ruling House was Ulrich I. (1241-1265), followed by 
Ulrich II. (1265-1279). This latter was succeeded 
by Eberhard the Illustrious (1279-1325). Eberhard 
greatly extended the possessions and power of the 
family and made Stuttgart his capital. 

There can be but little doubt that the close 
family ties between the Counts of Habsburg and 
those of Wiirtemberg proved in time to come 
of great advantage to the latter House, for when 
Rudolph of Habsburg became German King (1273- 
1291) he greatly favoured the princes to whom he 
was nearly related, and the Counts of Wiirtemberg 
came in for the largest share of his patronage, 
receiving enormous grants of land in Swabia. 

Eberhard V.'s fidelity to Rudolph's successor, 
Albert I., and afterwards to Frederick the Handsome 
of Austria, did not remain unrewarded, for Duke 
Leopold gave him in pledge half of the Burg of Teck, 
together with Kirchheim and Sigmaringen, of which 
the family of Habsburg had previously become 
possessed. Later Duke Leopold of Austria confirmed 
this grant in perpetuity to Ulrich III. (1325-1344) in 
consideration of his renouncing his share of their 
common inheritance in Alsace. 


Father of the late Duke of Teck, in Hungarian Uniform 


Ulrich III., however, at a later date, in 1343, fell 
oat with Dukes Leopold, Albert, and Frederick over 
the purchase of a number of countships. As a result, 
he invaded their Austrian territories, causing great 

In connection with the Counts of Wurtemberg 
it might be of interest to mention that at the time 
of the murder of the Emperor Albert I. by his 
nephew John of Habsburg (known as " The Parri- 
cide "), Walter von Eschenbach, a great feudal lord, 
who was implicated in this plot, and whose posses- 
sions in consequence were seized, took service as a 
shepherd with the Counts of Wurtemberg, living on 
their estates for nearly thirty-five years without his 
identity being discovered till his death. 

Eberhard V. (1457-1496) 

With Eberhard, surnamed " im Bart," the ducal 
line of Wurtemberg commences. This Duke attached 
to his Court many of the most illustrious scholars of 
his epoch. To him is due the foundation of the 
famous University of Tubingen in 1477. It was as a 
reward for his assistance when practically a captive 
in Flanders that the Emperor Maximilian raised 
Eberhard to the rank of Duke (1495). Under him 
also the country, which for forty years was divided 
amongst the two branches of the family, became 
united under one sceptre. 

Of this Eberhard " with the Beard " it is inter- 
esting to note that in 1468 he made a pilgrimage 



to the Holy Land, and was duly created a Knight 
of the Holy Deputation, from this moment leaving 
his beard to grow in remembrance of his journey. 
From the Holy Land he brought back with him a 
palm-tree, which he planted in the churchyard at 
Tubingen, which survived for nearly two centuries, 
and figures in all the portraits that exist of him. 

Duke Ulrich I. (1498-1550) proved himself 
possessed of great military abilities. He was, how^- 
ever, most extravagant, which led to a rising in 1514 
known to history as the " Poor Conrad " revolt. 
When banished from his estates for killing the 
favourite of his consort, he, with the aid of his 
relative, Philip of Hesse, not long after forcibly 
regained his Duchy, the Emperor Charles V. con- 
firming him in his rights. On his return he intro- 
duced the Reformed faith into the Duchy. 

His son Christopher (1550-1568) introduced a 
system of law and church government which has 
endured in part to the present day, and the establish- 
ment in his reign of a standing committee for the 
supervision of finances was the beginning of a 
popular representation in the Government. 

Duke Frederick I. (1593-1608) established the 
glory of the Ducal House, and at no time prior to 
this has Wiirtemberg enjoyed such a period of 
splendour. Historians have more than once com- 
pared him with Louis XIV., or his namesake 
Frederick I., the founder of the kingdom of Wiirtem- 
berg. It was due to his influence that the Emperor 
Rudolph II. raised the Duchy once more to an 
immediate fief of the Empire. 



(Her Majesty's Grandmother), at the time of her Engagement to 

Prince Alexander of Wurtemberg 

From a portrait, by kind permission of Baroness Odbn de Horvith, nee Countess de Rhedey 


In 1603 Duke Frederick, on visiting England, 
received from King James I. the Order of the Garter, 
and a very imposing ceremony celebrated the event 
on the return of the Duke to his Duchy. Duke 
Frederick was a great traveller and wrote a most 
interesting description of his travels in England, 
France, and other parts of the Continent. He died 
in 1608, the same year as the Emperor Rudolph II. 

In the reign of Duke John Frederic (1608-1628) 
Wiirtemberg suffered a great deal from the Thirty 
Years' War, in connection with which it is interest- 
ing to note that when the Elector Frederick V., 
after the defeat of the Bohemians at the White 
Mountains in 1620, was outlawed by the German 
Emperor, the young Duke Magnus of Wiirtemberg 
fell by the side of Christian of Brunswick, in the 
cause of the Palatine, after receiving no less 
than twelve wounds in the great battle with 
Tilly's forces. 

The Thirty Years' War, in which Duke Eber- 
hard III. (1628-1674) took part, proved disastrous 
to Wiirtemberg, which was occupied by the Imperial 
troops, and he himself was driven into exile, though 
by the Treaty of Westphalia he was reinstated. 

Under Eberhard IV. (1677-1733) Wiirtemberg 
suffered from repeated invasions by the French. 

Duke Charles Alexander (1733-1737) was the 
first Duke to embrace the Roman Catholic religion, 
and it is said he aimed at the suppression of the Diet 
and the introduction of the Romish faith, but his 
sudden death put an end to these plans. 

Duke Charles Eugene (1737-1793), whilst being 



a gifted prince, has left the reputation of being much 
influenced by his favourites, but he none the less 
rendered his Court for more than a generation one of 
the most brilliant on the Continent. 

Frederick Eugene (1793-1797), a brother of 
Charles Eugene, had been brought up as a Pro- 
testant, and the royal family have remained 
Protestants ever since. 

Frederick Eugene, as we shall see later, was the 
immediate ancestor of the Royal House of Wurtem- 
berg, and through the marriage of several of his 
children, his House became closely related with the 
greatest reigning families of Europe. During the 
rule of his son, Duke Frederick (1797-1816), Wiirtem- 
berg saw a great deal of fighting and was drawn into 
the great Napoleonic wars. First as an ally of 
Austria and then of Napoleon, and finally deserting 
the latter, by the Treaty of Pozsony (Pressburg), 
1805, the Duchy of Wiirtemberg was created a 
kingdom. By King Frederick's diplomatic abilities, 
Wiirtemberg was very considerably increased in 
size, in the general rearrangement of the map of 
Europe, though, in exchange for their increased 
territories in Germany, they had to give up 
Montbeliard, which had been held by the family 
for nearly four centuries. 

Since that period the history of Wiirtemberg 
belongs to modern times. We know that Frederick I., 
; King of Wiirtemberg, before even he succeeded to 
the Duchy, married, as his first wife (1780), Princess 
Augusta, daughter of Duke Charles William Ferdi- 
nand of Brunswick and a sister of the future Queen 


Published by kind permission of H.H. the present Duke of Teck 


Caroline of England, and secondly, in 1797, Princess 
Charlotte Matilda, Princess Royal of England, 
daughter of George III., and thus became closely 
connected with the English royal family. 

But King Frederick's brother, Louis, Duke of 
Wiirtemberg, united the two royal Houses of 
England and Wiirtemberg still more closely, for from 
him, as the grandfather of the late Duke of Teck, 
descends, on the paternal side, Her Gracious Majesty 
the Queen, the beloved consort of King George, the 
ideal of the people of the British Empire. 

The House of Wiirtemberg, already connected 
by marriage with the leading princely houses, became, 
in recent times, still more closely related to the 
greatest dynasties of Europe. The relationship to 
the Imperial Court of Russia was principally 
brought about through the marriage, in 1776, of 
Czar Paul I. to the Princess Dorothea Sophia, 
daughter of Duke Frederick Eugene of Wiirtemberg, 
who, as Empress, was received into the Greek 
Church as Maria Feodorovna, and became the 
mother of Czar Alexander I. One of her daughters, 
Catherine (Paulovna), married King William I. of 
Wiirtemberg (1816-1864) as his second wife.* King 
William's successor, Charles I. of Wiirtemberg 
(1864-91), married Princess Olga, daughter of Czar 
Nicholas I., who, as is known, married the daughter 
of Frederick III. of Prussia. 

Between the House of Habsburg and that of 

* King William married as his first wife Princess Charlotte, 
daughter of King Maximilian of Bavaria, and as his third wife 
Princess Pauline, daughter of Duke Louis of Wiirtemberg. 



Wiirtemberg, as we have seen, there has existed for 
centuries a close relationship, but in recent times the 
two reigning houses became even more intimately 
united by frequent intermarriage, brought about 
through the immediate ancestors of Her Majesty. It 
must be remembered that the Archduke Francis, 
afterwards Emperor Francis I., married Elizabeth, 
daughter of Frederick Eugene of Wiirtemberg ; 
whilst Archduke Joseph, Palatine of Hungary,* 
married, as his third wife, Princess Maria Dorothea, 
daughter of Louis, Duke of Wiirtemberg. 

Of the other sons of Duke Frederick Eugene, 
Duke Alexander, who died in 1833, married the 
daughter of Duke Francis of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, 
and through his son Alexander, who married the 
Princess Marie (daughter of King Louis Philippe, 
the gifted sculptress of the famous statue of Joan 
of Arc which adorns the Grand Place at Orleans), 
the Wiirtemberg Royal House, not only became 
related to the House of Orleans, but through this 
source still further connected with the House of 

The above, of course, is merely an outline of the 
eventful record of the House of Wiirtemberg which, 
for so many centuries, has played such an important 
part in the history of the Roman Empire, and more 
recently contributed to the aggrandisement of the 
present Empire of Germany, all of which is known 
to the student of history. 

* The Archduke Joseph married as his first wife Alexandrina 
Paulovna, daughter of Czar Paul, and as his second wife 
Hermine, daughter of Charles, Prince of Anhalt. 







Fbedeeick I., first King of Wiirtemberg (1797-1816) 
(i) Princess Augusta, d. of Duke Charles William Ferdinand of 


(ii) Princess Charlotte Mathilda, Princess Royal of England, d. of 

George III. 

William I., King of Wiirtemberg, 1816-1864 
(i) Princess Charlotte, d. of King Maximilian I. of Bavaria 
(ii) Princess Katherin (Paulovna), d. of Czar Paul I. 
(iii) Princess Pauline, d. of Duke Louis of Wiirtemberg 

Chables I., King of ' 

William II., present reigning King of Wiirtemberg, 1891 

Louis, 1756-1817 
in. Henriette, d. of Prince Christian of Nassau- Weilburg 

Alexander, 1804, f 1885 
1835, Claudia, Countess of Rhedey and Countess of Hohenstein, f 1841 

Francis, Duke of Teck, 1837-1900 
m. 1866, H.R.H. Princess Mary of Cambridge, 1 1897 

Dorothea Sophia 
Czar Paul I. of Russia, f 1* 

Alexander I., 1801-1825 

Nicholas, 1825-1855 


mi. Archduke (afterwards 

Emperor) Francis I. of Austria 

| I I Alexander II., 

Her Majesty Queen Maby Prince Adolphus Prince Francis, j 1910 Prince Alexander l 

(Duke of Teck) (Prince of Teck) (Prince of Teck) Alexander III., 

Nicholas, 1894, 
present reigning Czar 

Nicholas I. 
m. Charlotte, d. of 
Frederick III. of Prussia 

Princess Olga 
Charles I. of Wiirtemberg 

m. Archduke Joseph, Palatine of 

Hungary, who as his second 

wife m. Princess Maria Dorothea, 

d. of Duke Louis of Wiirtemberg 

Alexander, f 1833 
Antoinette, d. of Duke Francis of 
Saxe-Coburg Saalfeld 

Alexander, f 1881 

m. Princess Maria, d. of King Louis 

Philippe of France 


mi. Maria, d. of Archduke Albrecht of 



Albert Robert 

m. 1893, Archduchess m. Archduchess 
Marguerite of Austria Maria of Austria 


The princely House of Teck was originally founded 
by Adalbert of Zaliringen, who died in 1197, and 
takes its name from the feudal castle of Teck, j 
situated on one of the many picturesque peaks 
which render the Lauter Valley so beautiful. Of the 
castle only a few ruins now remain, together with 
the Gothic chapel containing a few family relics. 
As we said before, when the Teck family became 
extinct, in 1493, it was given first in part as a pledge, 
and ultimately as a whole in perpetuity by the Dukes 
of Austria to the Counts of Wiirtemberg. Later, in 
the reign of the Emperor Maximilian (1564-1576), 
Duke Eberhard of Wiirtemberg obtained from the 
Emperor the right to assume the title and quarter 
the Teck arms with those of Wiirtemberg. These 
honours have been borne by the Dukes of Wiirtem- 
berg till the foundation of the kingdom of Wiirtem- 
berg in 1805. 

After the marriage of Prince Alexander of 
Wiirtemberg to Claudia, Countess Rhedey, from 
which union sprang the late Duke of Teck and his 
two sisters, the Countess received from the 
Emperor of Austria the additional title of Countess 
of Hohenstein, which title was also given to her 
children. In 1863 King William of Wiirtemberg 
granted the late Duke of Teck the title of Prince, 
and in 1871 he was created Duke. The present 
Duke of Teck and his brother, Prince Alexander, in 
bearing this title may indeed feel a certain pride 
that it is one of the oldest to be found in the 
Almanach de Gotha, and one that their ancestors 
have borne for over eight centuries. 



Her Majesty's Hungarian Descent 

Proud as Her Majesty has every right to be of 
her Wurtemberg ancestors, her descent on the 
Hungarian side is by no means less illustrious. As a 
member of the Rhedey family on his mother's side, 
Her Majesty's father was a direct descendant of the 
historic House of Aba and the royal Arpad dynasty. 

That dynasty was one of the oldest and mightiest 
in Europe. The Byzantine and German Empires, 
and parts of France, Spain, and Italy, were in con- 
stant fear of its rulers and became tributary to it 
in the early part of the tenth century. The House 
of Arpad supplied some of the most illustrious 
monarchs to the world ; St. Stephen, Samu Aba, 
St. Ladislaus, Kalman, were all great kings whose 
fame spread over the civilised globe. The greatest 
royal houses in Europe were proud to become 
allied by marriage to this dynasty. The House of 
Guelph was the first to seek marriage alliance with 
the House of Arpad, long before it became connected 
with England, and whilst Her Majesty's ancestors 
of the House of Hohenstaufen have supplied several 
Queens to Hungary, the dynasty of Arpad has in 
exchange given to it one of the greatest princesses in 
Christianity — St. Elizabeth of Hungary. 

Nor were these the only alliances. The illustrious 
Polish House of Piast became allied by marriage 
with the Arpad dynasty in the tenth century, and 
Boleslaw the Lion-Hearted, the greatest of Polish 



(Sister to His Highness the late Duke of Teck) 

Published by kind permission of His Highness the Duke of Teck 


kings, descended from the same blood, as did Her 
Majesty's Hungarian ancestors. 

Numerous were its alliances with the Royal 
Houses of France and Arragon. 

The Ducal House of Russia and the Norman Kings 
of Sicily were proud that their daughters became 
Queens of Hungary. Many were the Princesses of 
Hungary belonging to the Royal House of Arpad 
who became queens of great empires and kingdoms. 

One sat on the Byzantine throne, and more than 
one became Queen of the House of Anjou ; whilst 
others were the Queens of the House of Jagellon, 
whose descendants ruled for centuries in Poland, 
Bohemia, and also in Sweden. 

Further, it must be recalled with pride that 
St. Margaret, the greatest queen that ever sat upon 
the Scottish throne, the ancestress of Their Majesties, 
first saw the light in Hungary and was closely 
connected with the House of Arpad. 

The ancient House of Habsburg has for centuries 
sought alliances with the House of Arpad, and in 
the veins of Hungary's present revered King, the 
Emperor-King Francis Joseph, flows the blood of 
the ancient Arpad dynasty. 

When we further say that Her Majesty's Hun- 
garian ancestors who descend from this illustrious 
dynasty have for centuries and centuries furnished 
Hungary with the greatest heroes in its history, heroes 
who rendered the greatest service to Christianity and 
to the cause of the Reformation, England may well be 
proud of having a Queen upon the Throne who can 
claim such an illustrious and glorious descent. 



The Rhedey family, from which Her Majesty 
the Queen and her brothers are descended on the 
paternal side, is one of the most illustrious families 
in Hungary. The progenitor of this historic house 
was Duke Ede, one of the seven dukes who accom- 
panied his kinsman Arpad in his conquest of Hungary 
more than a thousand years ago. Duke Ede's great- 
grandson, Samu Aba, married the sister of King 
St. Stephen, and subsequently, after his death, 
became King of Hungary. A long line of heroes, 
the descendants of Duke Ede — known under the 
name of Rhedey — distinguished themselves in the 
cause of freedom and Christianity, and furnished 
rulers to the Throne of Transylvania. 

Numerous are the legends and stories connected 
with the personality of Duke Ede and his origin, 
amongst which we shall relate the following as having 
reference to the foundation of the Hungarian State. 

The Empire of Attila 

After the death of Attila a quarrel ensued 
between his two sons, Aladar and Csaba, over the 
division of the Empire. The neighbouring states 
took advantage of the brothers' quarrel, with the 
result that they attacked the country. Aladar 
perished, while Csaba, with the remnant of his army, 
managed to escape. A number of his followers took 
refuge in the mountains of Transylvania, whilst the 
rest, led by Csaba, went over to the Byzantine Empire. 

Csaba's mother, having been an Imperial Princess 
of Greece, a daughter of the Emperor Honorius, the 




Emperor Marcianus accorded Csaba a favourable 
reception, and he remained at the Imperial Court 
for some years, ultimately, however, returning with 
the remnants of his army to the home of their 
ancestors on the banks of the Don, where, up to the 
time of his death, he never tired of persuading the 
Magyars to emigrate into the beautiful land of Pan- 
nonia, and to avenge themselves on their enemies 
who caused the destruction of the Empire of Attila. 

The Birth of Almos 

Many generations passed away ; the Magyars 
were still living in Central Asia, when a woman of 
the tribe of Aba, Emese by name, the wife of the 
Chief Ogyek, a descendant of Csaba, dreamed a 
strange dream — that a bird settled on her breast, and 
thence flew into her garden, from which a little 
stream broke forth, flooding the whole of Asia and a 
portion of Europe. She also saw a tree growing in 
her garden whose branches spread all over the 
world. The tree lived for hundreds of years and 
bore rich fruit. When it died, numerous other trees 
sprang into existence from its many branches, and 
these continued to flourish with all the splendour 
and magnificence of the parent tree. She went to 
a soothsayer, and it was prophesied to her that she 
would give birth to a son whose fame would spread 
far and wide, and who would be destined to re- 
conquer the beautiful land of Pannonia far away, 
which, once upon a time, was held by their ances- 
tors, the Huns. 



The child having been born, it received the name 
of Almos (meaning in the Magyar language a dream), 
and as it grew up the chiefs of the various tribes 
assembled and elected him to take the supreme 
command, and decided upon the reconquest of the 
Empire of the Huns. The chiefs who elected Almos 
to this important position, and accompanied him in 
the quest for the new land, were Elod, Kund, Tass, 
Huba, Tuhiitiim, Onud, and Ede. They were all 
powerful princes, descendants of mighty houses and 
rulers, but the most powerful of all was the Duke 
Ede, chief of the tribe of Aba, the lineal descendants 
of Csaba, the second son of Attila. Almos died 
before the cherished land was reached, and his son, 
Arpad, was chosen as his successor ; under his 
guidance the Magyars crossed the Carpathians and 
reached Hungary in 889, and after defeating the 
various princes who ruled the country, took posses- 
sion of it, regarding it as their inheritance from the 

The House of Aba 

By reason of their descent, and of the great share 
they had in the conquest of Hungary, the Aba family 
took high rank amongst the members of the ruling 
House, and it was therefore quite in keeping with 
that rank for Samu, or Samuel Aba, a grandson of 
Duke Ede, to marry the royal Princess Charlotte, 
sister of St. Stephen, the first Christian King of 
Hungary (1000-1038). 

By this marriage Samuel Aba became connected 
with the Imperial House of Germany and the reign- 





ARPAD, f907, founder of the Dynasty 

DUKE ETE or EDE (one of the Conquerors), about I 
(from him descends King Samu Aba) 

Duke Zsolt 

Duke Taksony 

DUKE GEZA, f997 
m. (i) Charlotte, Princess of Transylvania 


ST. STEPHEN, Apostolic King 
(First King of Hungary, ruled 997-1038) 
m. Gisela, sister of the Emperor, Henry II. 


Emeric, f 1036 

Several daughters (names 
unknown) one of whom, 
according to the Chroni- 
clers, m. Eadmund Aethel- 
ing during his exile in 

Maria = Orsuelo, Duke JUDITH = BOLESLAW I., 

I of Venice I King of Poland 

Duke Peter, King of Hungary, 
ruled first time, 1038-1041, de- 
posed 1041 by Samu Aba, ruled 
again 1045 

Miczislaw II., King of 
Poland = Rixea, Prin- 
cess of the 
German Im- 
perial House 

Casimir, King of Poland 

Prom this source descended the 
kings of Poland of the Piast 
dynasty, carried on in the 
female line by the Angevin 
Kings of Hungary and 
through them by the Jagiello 

CHARLOTTE = SAMU ABA, King of Hungary (ruled 1041-1045) 

Three sons (names unknown), founders 

of the House of Rhedey 

(from whom desoended in direct 

line the mother of the late 

Duke of Teck) 

Count Laszlo Rhedey = Baroness Inczedi 
(a lineil descendant 
of the House of 

Claudia, Countess of Rhedey = 
Prince Alexander of Wiirtemberg 

Francis, Duke of Teck (1837-1900) 
m. H.R.H. Princess Mary of Cambridge 


1 I I 

Heu Majesty Queen Mary Adolphus, Duke Prince Francis 
of Teck of Teck, f 1910 


(brother of Duke Geza) (see opposite) 

Vazul (Basil) Szar Laszlo (Ladislaus the Bald) 

Andreas, King of Hungary, 1047-1061 Bela I. (1061-1063 Leventa 

m. Anastasui. Prince -s of Eussia 

Salamon (1063-1074), m. Edith, 
. of Emperor Henry III. of Germany 

From Geza descended the remainder 
of the Arpiid Kings, carried on in 
the female line by the Angevin 
Kings of Hungary and by various 
other Houses connected with the 
Arpad dynasty when their rights, 
through intermarriage with the 
House op Habsburg, passed to 
that House, the present reigning 
dynasty of Hungary 

Prancis Josef I., 
Apostolic King of Hungary 

St. Ladislaus (1077-95) 

Irene = John II. 

(Byzantine Emperor) 


Emperor Manuel 


ing families of Russia, Sweden, Greece, France, and 

Samu or Samuel Aba 

Samuel Aba was one of the bravest soldiers of 
his time, and with the introduction of Christianity 
into Hungary he proved to be one of its greatest 

It was he who vanquished and slew Kupa, the 
leader of the heathen revolt in the Balaton district, 
and it was also he who raised the emblem of Chris- 
tianity in the virgin forest of the Matra mountain 
range. In recognition of his services, St. Stephen 
raised him to the dignity of Palatine of Hungary ; 

* The relationship with the Polish reigning dynasty was a 
very near one. Aba's consort, Queen Charlotte, was a daughter 
of Duke Geza of Hungary and his consort, the Polish Princess 
Adelhaid. Then, again, a sister of the Queen, Princess Judith, 
was married to their cousin, the great Polish King, Boleslaw I. 
Boleslaw's eldest daughter, Estrid, became a Swedish princess, 
and her daughter Insigered became the wife of Yaroslav the 
Great, of Russia. Another daughter of Boleslaw was married 
to Duke Sviatopolk, a younger brother of Yaroslav. Three 
sons of Yaroslav married respectively princesses of Germany, 
Greece, and England, whilst three of his daughters became 
Queens of Norway, France, and Hungary. The Bohemian 
connection originally came about through Miczislaw I., who 
married the beautiful Princess Dabrowka, daughter of Boleslaw, 
Duke of Bohemia. The Hungarian and Polish Royal Houses 
became further connected with the Imperial House of Germany 
by the marriage of Miczislaw II. (son of Boleslaw I.) to Rexia, 
a niece of the Emperor Otto III., and that of St. Stephen to 
Gisela, the sister of the Emperor Henry II., and further by the 
marriage of Salaman, King of Hungary, to the daughter of the 
Emperor Henry III. See Suhm, " History of Denmark." 
Copenhagen, 1787. 

17 c 


and, as previously stated, gave him his sister Char- 
lotte as his wife. In this high position Samuel Aba 
endeared himself to the people so much that at the 
death of St. Stephen, in the year 1038, without 
leaving any male issue, and his cousins Andrew and 
Bela, by the intrigues of Gisela and Peter having to 
take refuge in Russia, the people desired to elect 
Samuel Aba as their king. This, however, was 
strongly opposed by Queen Gisela, who wished to 
secure the crown for her favourite nephew, Duke 
Peter. The latter was supported in his candidature 
by the German Emperor, Henry III., and in due 
course was elected King of Hungary. 

Peter was, however, most unpopular, partly 
owing to his foreign descent (his mother, sister of 
St. Stephen, having been married to Duke Orseolo 
of Venice), and more so for his tyrannical rule, and 
after a short and inglorious reign he was driven out 
of the country by the Hungarian troops under the 
command of Samuel Aba, who was elected king in 
his stead. 

Peter, however, who had taken refuge with his 
brother-in-law, the Duke of Austria, induced the 
Emperor by the influence of the latter to promise his 
support for the reconquest of Hungary. 

This having come to the knowledge of Samu Aba, 
he immediately despatched an ambassador to the 
Emperor Henry, informing him that unless the 
Emperor renounced his plan in this respect, he would 
at once invade Germany. 

The Emperor, feeling insulted by the haughty 
attitude adopted by Samu Aba, and trusting too 



First King of Hungary (1000-1038) 

Copied from Sildgyi's "History of Hungary" 


much in the strength of his army, declined to give 
this undertaking, whereupon Samu Aba invaded 
Germany and inflicted heavy losses on the German 
arms, returning with great spoils to Hungary. 

Immediately after this Samu Aba set to work to 
reorganise the State which, during the misrule of 
Peter, had fallen to a low ebb. He set aside the 
German laws introduced by Peter, and reinstated 
those instituted by St. Stephen. 

At the beginning of his reign Samu Aba made 
himself most popular. He was very fond of the 
peasantry, and was frequently seen in their company, 
and would say to them, " Whatever there is in the 
country is the common property of king and people." 
(See Thurdczi's " Historia Regum Hungaricorum.") 
The peasants on their part became greatly attached 
to him, and owing to the fatherly interest he took 
in them, they insisted on styling him King Apa 
(meaning in Hungarian, "father"), or Aba, by 
which the family came to be known. 

His popularity with the people rather displeased 
the haughty nobles, who were accustomed to treat 
the peasants as their serfs. This attitude led him to 
adopt severe measures and persecutions. The clergy, 
too, though he endowed numerous churches and 
monasteries, took a great dislike to him and joined 
in an intrigue against him with the exiled King 
Peter. The latter invaded the country at the head of 
an army placed at his disposal by the German 
Emperor, Henry III., but was shamefully defeated 
by King Aba's troops, and though the army led 
by the Emperor himself was more successful, yet 

19 c 2 


he readily agreed to conclude peace, and, aban- 
doning the cause of Peter, the Emperor withdrew 
his forces from Hungary. Later, however, he was 
again persuaded to invade the country, and this 
time good fortune seemed to desert King Aba, who, 
at a sanguinary engagement with the Emperor 
Henry's army, at the battle of Menfo, near Gyor, 
was totally defeated. Aba and a few of his adhe- 
rents managed with great difficulty to make good 
their escape by cutting through the dense forest of 
Bakony, and taking refuge in a peasant's cottage. 
Ill fate, however, seemed to follow the King to his 
hiding-place, for the cottage was struck by lightning, 
and he had to fly to Csaba, where he was pursued by 
the enemy, and here, in accordance with some his- 
torians, in the town which bore the name of his 
ancestor, King Aba was slain by his pursuers, whilst 
others maintain that he lived for some time trying 
to raise another army, but was treacherously killed 
by a personal opponent at the town of Fuzes Abony, 
named after him. 

King Samuel Aba was buried in the monastery 
at Saar, founded by him, and his memory was pre- 
served throughout the length and breadth of the 
kingdom of Hungary for many centuries after his 
tragic death. 

Samu Aba's Great Wealth 

Samu Aba was possessed of enormous wealth and 
was regarded as the richest sovereign of his time. 
The fame of his vast treasures which were piled up 


Queen op Hungary 

KING SAMU ABA (1041-1044) 





(Copied from the «' Vienna Chronicles ") 


at Esztergom and Gyor, spread all over Germany, 
and some historians suggest it was more the greec. 
to become possessed of these treasures than the 
desire to reinstate King Peter on the throne, which 
made the Germans so repeatedly invade Hungary. 
It is certainly a fact that the rich presents of King 
Aba induced the Emperor Henry III. to withdraw 
his troops from Hungary, and also that after the 
defeat of Samu Aba at Gyor his enormous treasures 
were seized by the Emperor Henry III., and the 
great booty enriched many of his German vassals 
and partisans who aided him in the war against 
King Samu Aba. 

Aba's Generosity 

The following episode related of King Aba by 
Hungarian historians will prove that although he 
was accused of cruelty he was yet generous towards 
his adversaries. 

During the Easter holidays the King visited the 
town of Csanad. It was customary in those days for 
a monarch who came to the town to attend a religious 
ceremony, on which occasion the bishop of the 
diocese placed the crown upon his head. Bishop 
Gellert, the famous prelate (who a year later became 
a martyr to the cause of Christianity by being 
thrown into the Danube by Vatha, the heathen rebel, 
from the steep cliff of Buda, now bearing the name 
of St. Gellert), refused to perform the ceremony, and, 
getting into the pulpit, delivered a violent harangue 
in Latin against the King and the enemies of Chris- 



tianity. This caused great indignation amongst the 
Court functionaries present, who tried to stop the 
Bishop, but King Aba insisted on his continuing his 
speech, whereupon Bishop Gellert said, " I know my 
head is in danger, but I am ready to repeat all I have 
said." This caused still greater consternation 
amongst the Court dignitaries, who naturally ex- 
pected that the Bishop would be severely punished 
for his conduct by the King. 

Great was their surprise, however, when, at the 
conclusion of the ceremony, the King, instead of 
reprimanding the Bishop, turned towards the large 
congregation, none of whom had understood the Latin 
language in which the Bishop had spoken, and, 
addressing them in the Hungarian tongue, said, 
" It is a pity that such a wonderful discourse as that 
delivered by the Bishop should not be understood 
by his parishioners." He admired the Bishop greatly, 
he continued, for his wonderful courage, and he had 
his entire support for pursuing the enemies of Chris- 

Family Legends 

The ancient Hungarian folk-lore, which the 
Magyars brought with them from Asia, is full of 
praise of Tomaj-Aba and other ancestors of King 
Aba, which proves that the Aba family had played 
an important r61e before the Hungarian conquest 
during the pagan era ; but there are also many 
pretty legends about King Aba himself preserved to 
the present day, amongst which the following may 
prove of interest. 



(Gyor was the Treasure City op King Samu Aba) 


The Saar Legend 

King Aba was fast asleep in the Castle of Saar, 
when his faithful servant woke him with the dreadful 
news that his only daughter, the beautiful princess, 
had been carried away by some unknown miscreants. 
The King at once saddled his horse and, accompanied 
by his entire household, rode over the hills and 
plains as far as Buda and Eger, in search of his 
daughter. At last, after a fruitless search, they 
returned to Saar. The King, who could not be con- 
soled at the sad loss, ordered the White Friars of Saar 
(the monastery founded by him) to pray for the 
recovery of the Princess. 

Weeks and weeks elapsed, but the Princess had 
not been restored. At last Christmas came, and the 
good people of Saar, who were sharing the King's 
sorrow over his loss, attended midnight mass. One 
of the peasants, who had evidently taken more wine 
than he ought to have done, fell asleep in the chapel. 
Everybody had left, and when he awoke and looked 
round in the dim light of the oil lamp, what did he, 
to his great surprise, see ? Two friars were silently 
walking, the one carrying food in his hands, and the 
other wine ; they gently approached the crypt and 
lifted the heavy stone, and then descended the 
narrow steps ; the peasant's curiosity was aroused, 
and he silently followed them, and his astonishment 
was great when he heard the voice of the beautiful 
Princess, who implored the White Friars to let her 
go to her father. 



The peasant at once rushed away and ran as fast 
as he could towards the King's palace to break the 
joyful news. 

The King, who was fast asleep when the peasant 
arrived, immediately arose and saddled his horse, 
and, accompanied by his household, proceeded to 
the monastery of Saar. The King asked the friars 
to give him up his daughter, but they all denied she 
was concealed there. The King then broke into the 
monastery, where he found his daughter, and, in his 
extreme rage, ordered all the monks, forty-four in 
number, to be killed. 

King Aba's Tears 

Another legend runs as follows : — 

It was night, a dark night. King Aba was lying 
headless on the battlefield. Next to him lay his 
faithful servant Kaba, who was knocked down and 
rendered senseless by the sword of an enemy. All 
at once the moon peeped out and lit up the sad and 
ghastly spectacle. Kaba, too, awoke from his dreams 
and regained consciousness, and as he looked round 
and saw the dead body of his master, he burst into 
tears and picked up the monarch's head, which was 
still bleeding, kissed it, and bathed it with tears. 
He then covered it with the King's helmet that was 
close by, and hurried away from the spot towards 
the forest. He found there, wandering about, the 
King's steed, which approached him sadly. He 
mounted it and galloped towards the Matra Moun- 
tains. He reached Agasvar (the fort of Agas) ; here 



he stopped and dug a hole in the cliff of the Tar 
Valley, where he laid the King's head down in order 
to bury it there, when all at once the eyes of the 
dead monarch opened, and tears flowed from them 
like a torrent. The head commenced to speak, and 
said, " Kaba, my son, I will always mourn and weep 
for my beautiful country." Hardly had these words 
been uttered than the head slipped down in the 
depth of the cliff, and from it sprang the so-called 
Csevicze stream, which still flows from the Valley 
of Tar, and is called by the peasants, " The spring 
formed out of King Aba's tears." 

But we shall now pass from the world of legend 
to that of history, and refer in the following pages to 
some of the most important rulers of the time whose 
near kinship to Samu Aba claim our attention. 

Duke Geza and St. Adelbert 

Duke Geza, the father-in-law of Samuel Aba, was 
the first Christian Duke of Hungary of the House of 
Arpad. His first wife, Charlotte, was a daughter of 
the Transylvanian Waiwode Gyula. She was a 
woman of great intellect, who more than once had 
occasion to fight the enemies of her country. Having 
been brought up at the Byzantine Court she was 
converted, whilst still young, to Christianity, and 
she also induced her husband to accept that faith, 
and both he and their newly-born child were bap- 
tised by St. Adelbert, Bishop of Prague, the young 
Prince receiving the name of Stephen in place of his 
former name Vajk. 



Duke Geza, however, whilst acknowledging him- 
self to be a true adherent of the Christian faith, and 
laying the foundation of the great Benedictine 
monastery of Pannonhalma, of which St. Adelbert 
became the first Prior, was accused of still having 
great leanings towards the pagan religion, and of 
him, it is related, that when he was accused by 
Bishop Wolfgang for secretly worshipping the pagan 
idols, he is said to have given the characteristic 
answer, " And supposing I do, what does it matter ? 
I am rich enough to offer gifts to two gods at the 
same time." 

His wife, Charlotte, having died, he was married 
again to Adelhaide, a Polish princess, sister of Duke 
Miczislaw I., of the great Polish House of Piast. The 
marriage is said to have been brought about by the 
German Emperor, Otto I., who was anxious to 
secure Duke Geza as an ally. 

Princess Adelhaide was possessed of great beauty 
and was famed in both Hungary and Poland for her 
excellent horsemanship, and won many races against 
the most skilful riders in both countries. She ruled 
both her husband and the country. 

By his second marriage Duke Geza had three 
daughters. Historians do not quite agree as to their 
names, but it is generally believed that they were 
respectively Judith, Charlotte, and Maria. The 
former was married to her cousin, Boleslaw I., King 
of Poland ; the second, Charlotte, to Samuel Aba, 
as previously stated ; and the third to Duke Otto, 
son of Duke Peter Orseolo of Venice. His son 
Stephen received as wife Gisela, sister of the famous 


(Godfrey de Bouillon stayed here on his way to the Holy Land) 




r tf H 1 ' ! 


raw*, 5 




Emperor Henry II., on her mother's side a 
Burgundian princess, and thus closely akin to the 
House of Guelph. 

By this marriage the feud between Hungary and 
Germany was put to an end, and Hungary became 
a place of refuge for many German feudal lords, who, 
enticed by the great wealth of the country, settled 
there and founded families, amongst whose 
descendants there are still many who hold the 
highest positions in Hungary. 

Duke Geza died in 997 and was succeeded by his 
son Stephen. 

The Noble Life of St. Stephen 

The legend goes that his mother, Charlotte, before 
his birth, saw him in her dreams as the apostle of 
the nation, and so he proved to be. 

As soon as he ascended the throne he set to work 
to put down the heathen worship which was still 
practised in some parts of the country, and quell the 
various insurrections stirred up by the adherents of 
the pagan worshippers. 

In memory of his many victories gained over the 
enemies of Christianity he built a great monastery 
and dedicated it to St. Martin, and this in course of 
time became the largest of its kind in Hungary, it 
being now an Arch- Abbey under the direct control 
of the Holy See. He also founded the Archbishopric 
of Esztergom and numerous other bishoprics and 
monasteries throughout Hungary and Transylvania. 
Amongst foundations abroad is the Church of 
St. Stephen at Mount Coelis in Rome, also a college 



for twelve priests on the Vatican Hill, and a hospice 
for Hungarian pilgrims. Similar foundations were 
made by him at Constantinople and Jerusalem, and 
he also founded many religious and public institu- 
tions in Hungary. 

After restoring order in the country he turned his 
attention to the spread of Christianity, and sent 
envoys to Pope Sylvester the Second, announcing to 
him that he had embraced Christianity, and asking 
for his blessing. The Pope acceded to this by sending 
him the crown, together with a Bull proclaiming him 
as the first state dignitary in Hungary, with the 
title of Apostolic King of that country. This crown, 
with which the Hungarian kings are still crowned, 
had been made for Boleslaw, a prince of Poland, and 
was to have been sent to him the day after Stephen's 
envoys arrived ; but, according to the legend, Syl- 
vester saw an angel in his dreams, who asked him 
not to send the crown to Boleslaw, but give it to the 
envoys of St. Stephen, who would arrive the next 
day. On the envoy's return Stephen crowned himself 
as the first King of Hungary with the crown sent to 
him by Sylvester, and adopted as his title " Apos- 
tolic King of Hungary," which title is still proudly 
borne by the Kings of Hungary. In accepting, how- 
ever, the crown and the title of King, Stephen 
decided to make it clear that Hungary should not 
be regarded as subject to the Holy Roman Empire. 

He then turned his attention to the internal 
affairs of the country and established many laws, 
which to this day form the basis of the legislation of 



He organised the county system and the military 
administration, and defined the position of the 
nobility and their feudal tenants. 

St. Stephen's peaceful rule was, however, dis- 
turbed, for the nation, led by Kupa, revolted against 
Christianity, and it was only after severe fighting 
that they surrendered. Hardly was order restored 
in the country, when Gyula, the Prince of Transyl- 
vania, who was a relation of Stephen's, tried to upset 
the Christian religion. Stephen sent a large army to 
Transylvania and conquered the country, taking 
Gyula, his wife, and children prisoners, but treating 
them very kindly. Transylvania was annexed to 
Hungary, and was ruled by a Waiwode, appointed 
by the King of Hungary. 

Amongst St. Stephen's noble characteristics, 
described in Bishop Butler's " Lives of the Saints," 
may be mentioned the following : — 

He was of most easy access to people of all 
ranks, and listened to everyone's complaints without 
distinction or preference, except that he appeared 
most willing to hear the poor, knowing them to be 
the more easily oppressed. 

The good King provided for their subsistence 
throughout his whole kingdom, and took them, 
especially the helpless widows and orphans, under 
his special protection, declaring himself their patron 
and father. But not content with his general 
charities and care for all the indigent, he frequently 
went about privately to discover more freely the 
necessities of any that might have been overlooked 
by his officers, 



One day it happened that whilst he was dealing 
out his plentiful alms in disguise, a troop of beggars 
set upon him, threw him down, plucked him by the 
beard and hair, and took away his purse, seizing 
for themselves what he had intended for the relief 
of many others. 

His nobles rallied round him on this occasion, 
although he did not heed them ; he learned, however, 
from this incident not to expose his person, but he 
renewed his resolution never to refuse alms to any 
poor person that asked him. 

Many are the miracles attributed to him. Amongst 
them is the following : — 

After the death of the Saint's great friend, 
St. Henry, the Emperor, his successor, Conrad II., 
invaded Hungary with a powerful army in 1030, 
and advanced so far that St. Stephen was compelled 
to lead an army against him, though still hoping that 
bloodshed might be prevented. All things seemed 
disposed for a decisive battle when, the legend 
says, St. Stephen again recommended himself and 
his earnest desire for peace to the Blessed Virgin. 
To the surprise of all, the Emperor suddenly retreated 
with his army, and without having accomplished 
anything, marched home to Germany with as great 
precipitation as though he had been defeated. 

Eadmund Ironside's Children in Hungary 

The great fame of St. Stephen brought many 
foreign kings and princes as refugees to his Court at 
Esztergom. Amongst these was his brother-in-law, 


Where Queen Gisela resided, as also the English Aethelings 



Prince Bruno, who, in 1003, sought shelter with him 
in fear of his brother, Emperor Henry II., against 
whom he had rebelled, and St. Stephen managed to 
effect a reconciliation between the two brothers. 
But from an English point of view it will be of 
special interest to recall the fact that it was to the 
Court of St. Stephen that the English Aethelings, 
the sons of Eadmund Ironside, were sent to save 
them from the wrath of Canute. 

There is a great romance attached to the exile 
and sojourn of the Aethelings in Hungary. About 
the year 1017, and during the reign of Canute, the 
children of Eadmund Ironside, Eadmund and 
Eadward, who were mere babes, were sent out of the 
kingdom into Sweden to Canute's half-brother, 
Olaf or James, with instructions to have them put 
out of the way. The Swede, a zealous propagator 
of Christianity, abhorred the crime and sent the 
children to the King of the Hungarians, who received 
them most kindly, and brought them up at his Court 
as his own children. Eadmund, according to some 
historians, married the daughter of the King of 
Hungary, but he died young ; Eadward, however, 
survived, and about the year 1040 married a 
lady of royal descent, Agatha by name, by whom 
he had three children : Margaret, born in Hungary 
about 1048, Christina, and Eadgar. 

Eadward and his family remained in the land of 
their adoption till 1057, when a mission from their 
uncle, Eadward the Confessor, arrived in Hungary, 
in order to escort them back to England with a view 
to Eadward being recognised as rightful successor 



to the throne of England. Eadward and his family, 
in consequence, came to England in the year 1057, 
but he died shortly after his arrival here. His 
widow Agatha, and her children, Margaret, Chris- 
tina and Eadgar, were hospitably received by the 
Confessor, and remained at the English Court until 
the Conquest, when they fled to Scotland. Ulti- 
mately Margaret was married to Malcolm Canmore, 
and became the famous Queen — St. Margaret of 

St. Margaret of Scotland, as is well known, 
linked together the House of Wessex with that of 
the other English reigning dynasties, and was the 
ancestress of the present reigning House of England.* 

The Hungarian Origin of St. Margaret 
of Scotland 

In connection with St. Margaret of Scotland, it 
will not be out of place to point out here that there 
exists a great uncertainty amongst ancient chroniclers 
and modern historians as to the parentage of St. 

* Henry I. of England married Matilda, daughter of King 
Malcolm of Scotland and St. Margaret (a great grand-daughter 
of Eadmund Ironside), and thereby strengthened his otherwise 
insecure title to the Crown. Their daughter, also called Matilda, 
and better known as the " Lady of England," was married, 
firstly, to the German Emperor Henry V., and on his decease 
came back to England (1126). In the following year she was 
married to Geoffrey, son of Foulques, Count of Anjou, and 
became the mother of Henry II., the first Angevin King of 
England. It is also through Robert Bruce, a descendant of 
Malcolm and St. Margaret, that the Stuarts became the Kings 
of Scotland and the Kings of England. 



Margaret's mother, Agatha. The earliest chroni- 
clers refer to her variously as the niece of Queen 
Gisela, the wife of St. Stephen, who was a sister of 
the Emperor Henry II. , and, therefore, a niece of 
the Emperor himself. Others again refer to her as 
the daughter of the Emperor, but it is known that 
the sainted Henry II. had no children. Most of the 
chroniclers, on the other hand, refer to her as the 
daughter of King Salamon of Hungary, but King 
Salamon was only born in 1052, after the birth of 
St. Margaret. 

These conflicting statements have for centuries 
given rise to various conjectures on the part of 
historians, each having no practical foundation, 
and are impossible to verify by the chronicles of 
the period. 

Having devoted considerable time to the study 
of the question and the examination of all the 
circumstances, both historical and traditional, the 
present writer has come to the conclusion that 
Agatha was no other than the daughter of King 
Samu Aba, who ruled about the time (1041-1045) 
when, according to the accepted theory, the marriage 
of Eadward the Aetheling to Agatha took place in 

It is impossible here to enter into details regarding 
this much disputed question, which will form the 
subject of a special treatise. Suffice it to say that 
there seems but little doubt that Agatha was a 
daughter of Samu Aba, whose name appears to have 
been confused with that of Salamon — a very excus- 
able error on the part of chroniclers not acquainted 

33 d 


with the Hungarian language, for it must be remem- 
bered that " Samu " is but an abridged form of 
" Samuel," and is often confused, even by Hun- 
garians themselves, with the name of " Salamon." 

This theory reconciles the versions of the chroni- 
clers who refer to Agatha as the niece of Queen 
Gisela, for Aba having married a sister of St. Stephen, 
his daughter would be a niece by marriage to Gisela, 
though not to the Emperor himself. There can be 
no doubt that this is the solution of the problem, 
which is in keeping with Hungarian tradition and 
other circumstances connected with the history of 
the country. 

Such being the case, Hungary may proudly 
claim that not only Her Majesty the Queen, but 
King George himself has Hungarian blood in his 
veins, derived moreover from a common source. 

The Terra Britannorum in Hungary 

Reverting further to the sojourn of the English 
Aethelings in Hungary, it will be of interest to state 
that, according to Hungarian historians, the Aethe- 
lings during their stay in Hungary had conferred 
upon them a large tract of land, which still in the 
thirteenth century was referred to as " Terra 
Britannorum de Nadasih." 

This domain, as recently demonstrated by 
archaeologists, is situated in the county of Baranya, 
near the modern Nadasd, where there is an old ruin, 
which is claimed to have been the residence of the 
Aethelings, Eadmund and Eadward, and their 


King op Poland, 999-1025 


families during the sojourn in Hungary. There is a 
bridge in the vicinity called " The Bridge of the 
Three Princes," and learned historians suggest that 
it was named after the three children of Eadward 
the Atheling, Eadgar, St. Margaret of Scotland, 
and Maria, who were born in this castle. 

The fact that the domain bestowed upon the 
Aethelings was situated in the Baranya district 
would also prove their close association with Samu 
Aba, inasmuch as this was the territory given to his 
ancestors at the time of the conquest of Hungary. 
Further, it is known that a certain Lelesz accom- 
panied the Aethelings back to England, and remained 
there, and, according to some historians, founded the 
Scottish house of Leslie and the French house of 
De Flsle. 

His relations remained in the Terra Britannorum 
in Hungary. Now we know for certain that the 
Lelesz family form a portion of the Aba stock, and 
the fact that one of its members should have accom- 
panied the Aethelings to England, and also that the 
estates of the princes remained in the possession 
of the Lelesz family, would also show that a 
great family link existed between the Aethelings 
and the members of the House of Aba, which in face 
of all the circumstances connected with the case 
brings us to the indisputable conclusion that this 
link was brought about through Agatha, the mother 
of St. Margaret, who could have been no other than 
a daughter of King Samu Aba. 

The domain of Nadasd, it will be of interest to 
add, now forms part of the property of the ancient 

35 d 2 


family of Nadasdy, who claim to be the descendants 
of one of the nobles who accompanied the Aethelings 
from England to Hungary. 

Boleslaw I. 

The next to claim our attention is Boleslaw L, 
the first King of Poland, the brother-in-law of King 
Samu Aba. He was called by the Poles " Chrobry " 
(Lion-hearted), whilst the Germans nicknamed him 
" Trinkbier " owing to his corpulency. 

Boleslaw I. was the son of Miczislaw I., the first 
Christian Duke of Poland, by his beautiful wife 
Dabrowka, daughter of the Duke of Bohemia. He 
married Judith, the sister of Aba's queen, and 
amongst his several daughters, one was married to 
Svfatopolk, the son of Duke Vladimir the Great of 
Russia, and another to a Swedish prince, and through 
this marriage became related to the reigning dynasty 
of England. Boleslaw succeeded his father on the 
throne of Poland in the year 999, at the age of 
thirty-two. In his early youth he exhibited great 
qualities of mind, undaunted courage, and a pas- 
sionate love for his country. As he grew up he 
became the ideal of his countrymen, and he well 
merited this, for he was certainly one of the most 
humane, affable, and generous men of his time, and 
with it all, brave and gallant to the extreme. It may 
be safely said that he inaugurated that chivalry 
for which Poland was known for many centuries 
after, during the independence of the country. 

The fame of Boleslaw having reached the ears of 



(Her Majesty's Grandmother) 

Reproduced from a painting, by kind permission of H.H. the Duke of Teck 


the Emperor Otto III., he decided to pay him a visit 
on his way back from Rome, and so hearty was his 
reception by Boleslaw that the Emperor, in order to 
show him his gratitude, raised him to the dignity of 
King, and presented him on this occasion with the 
lance of St. Maurice, which precious relic is still 
sacredly guarded in the cathedral of Cracow. 

The ancient chroniclers (in particular, Galus) 
describe, in a most graphic manner, the magnificent 
military manoeuvres prepared by Boleslaw for his 
imperial visitor and the gorgeous array of nobles and 
their ladies, the splendour of which surprised the 
Emperor, for, says the chronicle, " gold was held as 
common at the time as silver, whilst the latter metal 
was as common as straw." 

Prior to the departure of the Emperor he affianced 
his niece, Rixea, to Miczislaw, the son of the King, 
and he was highly pleased to have found, as he 
believed, in this powerful prince, both a friend and 
a vassal of the German Empire. 

He returned to Germany with a precious token, 
the arm of St. Adalbert, the patron saint of Poland, 
the gift of Boleslaw to the Emperor. 

With the assumption of his new title Boleslaw 
became involved in a series of wars in Silesia. The 
Bohemians, jealous at his increased power, tried to 
make themselves masters of Silesia, but Boleslaw 
repulsed them with great loss from that country, 
whereupon he invaded Bohemia itself, captured 
the capital, and took the King and his eldest son 
prisoners, placing on the ducal throne Ulrich, the 
second son of the defeated Duke. 



This success of Boleslaw greatly alarmed the 
German princes, and fearing that they might find in 
him in the future a formidable rival, they resolved 
to form a confederacy against him in order to drive 
him out of Bohemia. In the first instance they suc- 
ceeded in doing so, dethroned Ulrich, and placed the 
rightful heir upon the throne. Boleslaw, however, 
returned to Bohemia with a large force, and in the 
end the Emperor Henry II., who was now upon the 
German throne, was compelled to recognise Ulrich, 
the nominee of Boleslaw, in the ducal dignity of 

But this is not the only time that Boleslaw came 
into collision with the Germans ; indeed, it was only 
the commencement of a series of wars which brought 
him fame and lustre, and he soon became known as 
one of the greatest kings of the time. In the many 
expeditions which he made against Germany and 
the various Wendish tribes, he penetrated as far as 
Holstein, conquering country after country, includ- 
ing Saxony, and filling all Germany with the greatest 

But what made him most famous were his wars 
with Russia. After the death of Vladimir the Great, 
the empire, by the expressed desire of the deceased 
monarch, was to be divided amongst his five sons. 
The eldest son of Vladimir, however, Sviatopolk, who 
was a son-in-law of Boleslaw, objected to this 
arrangement and endeavoured to make the country 
obey one master with himself as Duke. The other 
brothers resented this, and having been expelled 
from the country he went to his father-in-law in 



(Gkandfather of Her Majesty) 

Published by kind permission of His Highness the Duke of Teck 


Poland, imploring his assistance. Boleslaw thereupon 
invaded Russia and marched against Yaroslav, who 
seized the Principality of Tver, which by rights 
belonged to his brother Sviatopolk. The two op- 
posing forces met on the banks of the river Bug. 
Finding no other means of crossing, Boleslaw plunged 
into the water with a number of his followers and 
attacked the powerful army of the enemy on the 
opposite bank, defeating and pursuing them to the 
walls of Kiev, which he immediately captured. 
Striking the Golden Gate, he took possession of it in 
the name of Sviatopolk, whom he restored to his 
former dignity, and leaving a Polish garrison behind 
to protect his son-in-law, Boleslaw departed for 

Sviatopolk, on his part, however, proved un- 
grateful, for as soon as Boleslaw had departed, in 
order to rid himself of the Poles, he arranged a plan 
to massacre them all at a given signal. The plan, 
however, was divulged, and the Poles, who were 
naturally greatly incensed at this intended outrage, 
retaliated, nearly destroyed the city, and then 
departed on their way homewards towards Poland. 

Having been pursued by an immense Russian 
army, Boleslaw started at the head of his troops for 
the relief of his soldiers, and again the two opposing 
forces met on the banks of the River Bug, when 
Boleslaw almost entirely annihilated his Russian 

This, however, did not end his wars with Russia. 
Yaroslav, after the departure of the Polish troops 
from Kiev, was not content to make himself the 



master of the city, but he was also anxious to add 
to his dominions some Polish provinces which had 
previously belonged to Russia. Boleslaw, however, 
was prompt in meeting his formidable adversary, 
and at the approach of his large army on the banks 
of the Bug, the Russians became panic-stricken, and 
Yaroslav was compelled to acknowledge Boleslaw : s 
supremacy over his country. 

Boleslaw behaved with great generosity to his 
opponent on this occasion, and restoring the Russian 
prisoners, he contented himself by merely leaving 
a garrison in the more important places, so 
as to uphold his authority, and returned to his 

This proved his last war, for not long afterwards, 
in the year 1025, this great monarch died, greatly 
mourned by his people, for in him they lost their 
greatest sovereign, the father of their country, one 
who was just, wise, and kind, one who, whilst 
honouring those of his subjects who served the true 
interest of their country, could be severe against 
those not inspired with these qualities. 

In his government he associated himself with 
twelve of the wisest men of his kingdom, and with 
their aid he impartially administered justice, and 
remedied the wrongs of his subjects. He also 
travelled through the various parts of his kingdom 
so as to inquire into the different methods of 
local administration, in order to remedy the just 
grievances of his subjects. 

Prior to his death Boleslaw convened an Assembly 
at Gresen, when his son Miczislaw was appointed his 



successor. Miczislaw became the father of King 
Casimir I. and father-in-law to Bela (afterwards 
King of Hungary), who, whilst an exile in Poland, 
distinguished himself by vanquishing the Prince 
of Pomerania, a vassal of Poland. 

With the death of King Aba and the assumption 
of power by his rival, King Peter, the Aba family 
were severely persecuted, and many members had to 
take refuge at the Polish Court. The family, how- 
ever, soon regained its former position in the councils 
of the kingdom, and we frequently meet with 
various members gallantly fighting in the numerous 
wars in which the Magyars were involved during the 
reigns of St. Ladislaus (1077-1095) and KingKalman 

Amongst the members of the family who so 
distinguished themselves during the period referred 
to, was a certain Peter, who in 1067 founded the 
monastery of Zast, and endowed it with twenty- 
three estates, extending into six counties. In the 
War of Succession between King Salamon and Prince 
Geza, he was the main support of the latter, who 
eventually occupied the throne (1074-1077) as 
King Geza I. 

Another member of the Aba family, also called 
Peter, probably a son of the former, took Holy 
Orders and became Prince Abbot of the famous 
Abbey of Pannonhalma, where, in the year 1096, 
he entertained Godfrey of Bouillon, together with 
his wife and brother Baldwin and a host of Crusaders 
on their passage through Hungary to the Holy Land. 



In the early part of the twelfth century, the 
family divided into many branches and assumed 
different names from their possessions, and founded 
amongst others the illustrious Houses of Rhedey, 
Bathori, Bethlen, and Apafiy, all of whom were 
destined to play important parts in the history of 
Hungary and Transylvania, and prove themselves 
the champions of freedom and liberty, and the 
defenders of the Protestant faith. 

These different sections not only founded 
dynasties of their own in Transylvania, but also 
provided rulers for the kingdom of Poland. 

It would be impossible here to enumerate the 
heroic deeds and the important parts played by 
these great families in the history of Hungary and 
Transylvania, as well as that of Poland, all of 
which are immortalised in the history and legendary 
lore of these countries. 

As the most direct descendants of the House of 
Aba, and the ancestors of Her Majesty, Queen Mary, 
on the paternal side, the Rhedey family claim first 
our attention, but in dealing with the subject and 
a family whose ancestors have been so closely 
identified with the freedom and liberty of their 
country, a short sketch of the history of Hungary 
must be given before proceeding with our account. 


Published by kind permission of H.H. the present Duke of Teck 

Hungary under the Arpad Kings 

After the death of King Aba and the ultimate 
defeat of Peter, the country was the scene of per- 
petual strife between King Andrew I. and Bela I. 
and their successors, order having been only finally 
restored during the rule of Ladislaus I., styled St. 
Ladislaus (1077-1095), who proved to be one of Hun- 
gary's greatest monarchs. He extended the country 
beyond its former limits and conquered Croatia 
(1901). St. Ladislaus was also a pattern of Hun- 
garian chivalry. 

His nephew, King Kalman (1095-1114), known as 
the "Book King" owing to his great learning, 
introduced many useful laws and reforms. He also 
took Dalmatia from the then mighty Venetian 
Republic (1105) and annexed it to Hungary. 

Bela II. (1131-1141) deserves mention, if only 
for the fact that at the time of the great struggle of 
Welf and Guelph against Conrad III., Bela sided 
with Welf, who owed, to some extent, his defeat by 
the sudden death of Bela in 1141. 

Geza II. (1141-1161) also championed the cause 
of the Guelphs, and in 1 146 defeated in battle Leopold 
of Austria of the Hohenstaufen dynasty. 

Andrew II. (1205-1235) is known to history as 
one of the leaders of the Crusade, and who, upon his 
return, granted in the year 1222 the " Golden Bull," 



a charter similar to the English Magna Charta which 
King John had granted eight years previously. His 
wife, Gertrude of Meran, was a Hohenstaufen 
princess, and his daughter, Elisabeth, married Louis, 
Landgrave of Thuringia, and became known to 
history as the famous St. Elisabeth of Hungary. 

The Tartar Invasion 

His son, Bela IV. (1235-70), who succeeded him, 
had to face an invasion of the Tartars (1241-42), who, 
with an army of over one million, invaded and laid 
waste the capital. 

Bela IV. had also to fight the Austrians and 
Styrians. He defeated and killed Duke Frederick, the 
last member of the House of Babenberg (1246), who 
then ruled over Austria. He was also engaged in 
numerous wars with Bosnia, Dalmatia, and Bulgaria. 

His successor, Stephen V. (1270-1272), who 
became connected by his daughter's marriage with 
the House of Anjou, and his grandson, Ladislaus IV. 
(1272-1290), owing to family disputes were con- 
stantly engaged in wars against their kinsman, 
Ottokar II., King of Bohemia. Ladislaus IV. con- 
cluded an alliance with Rudolph of Habsburg, King 
of Germany, in 1275, against Ottokar II., who was 
defeated by the Hungarians and killed on the battle- 
field (1278), when his territories were annexed by 
Rudolph of Habsburg. With the death of Andrew III. 
(1301), the successor of Ladislaus IV., the dynasty 
of the House of Arpad, which had ruled Hungary for 
over 400 years, became extinct. 



yL*t#2 & *^4 g^g=^ fU^. 



Published by kind permission of H.H. the Duke of Teck 


Charles Robert — Louis the Great 

After the extinction of the male line of the House 
of Arpad, various pretenders belonging to the female 
line put in their claim and usurped the throne for 
a time, but finally, in the year 1308, the crown was 
offered to, and accepted by, Charles Robert of Anjou, 
of the Neapolitan branch, who, on his mother's side, 
was a grandson of Stephen V. of Hungary. 

Charles Robert (1308-42) proved an excellent 
ruler. He invited some of the great Neapolitan 
nobles and high clergy to settle in Hungary, and 
remodelled the state after the Italian fashion, intro- 
ducing also the arts and culture of that country into 
Hungary. He married a Polish princess, sister of 
Casimir III., the Great, the last male descendant of 
the great House of Piast, with which illustrious 
dynasty Her Majesty Queen Mary's ancestors, as we 
have previously stated, were closely related. 

Charles Robert was succeeded by his son Louis 
(1342-82), styled Louis the Great. He organised an 
expedition to Naples in order to avenge the death 
of his brother Andrew, who was murdered at the 
instigation of his wife, Queen Johanna of Naples. 
He captured the city and punished the murderers of 
his brother and returned to Hungary. 

The reign of Louis the Great, which lasted for 
forty years, was a most brilliant one in Hungary. 
He recaptured Dalmatia from the Venetians, con- 
quered Moldavia, Bulgaria, Servia, and Bosnia, and 
the Wallachians had to submit to the supremacy of 



On the death of Casimir III. in the year 1370, 
Louis, as the nearest male descendant of the House 
of Piast, was elected King of Poland, and the king- 
doms of Hungary and Poland were thus united. 
Louis also had no sons, and therefore at his death 
in 1382 he was succeeded in the kingdom of Hungary 
by his daughter Maria (1382-95), who was married 
to Sigismond, the son of the Emperor Charles IV., 
whilst the throne of Poland, Louis secured to his 
second daughter, Hedwiga, by her marriage with 
Uladislaus Jagiello, Duke of Lithuania, the founder 
of the illustrious dynasty of the Jagiellos in Poland, 
which lasted until 1572. 

War between the Kings of Hungary 
and Poland 

The powerful state established by Louis the 
Great was exposed immediately after his death to 
internal troubles and disorders. Upon the marriage 
of Queen Maria to Sigismond she desired her 
husband to become joint ruler with her, which, after 
a great opposition, was agreed to. Upon the death 
of Queen Maria, Sigismond, who, in the meantime, 
succeeded his father as Roman Emperor (1411), and 
was elected King of Poland (1419), managed to secure 
his election as sole King of Hungary. Uladislaus 
Jagiello, now King of Poland, objected to this, and 
invaded Hungary at the head of a large army, claim- 
ing the crown on behalf of his wife, Queen Hedwiga, 
but ultimately he withdrew before the army of King 

In the meantime the Turks assumed a most 



menacing attitude in the Balkans, and Sigismond's 
forces, though at first victorious, were ultimately 
defeated at Nikopoli (Bulgaria). This led to a 
rebellion, and Sigismond was deprived of his 
liberty, but in the course of time was set free again. 
After a long and inglorious reign he died in the year 
1437, being succeeded by his son-in-law, Albert II., 
Duke of Austria, as King of Hungary and also of 
Germany and Bohemia. Albert died after two 
years' reign, whereupon Uladislaus I., King of 
Poland, the son of the founder of the Jagiello 
dynasty, invaded the country, and claimed it as the 
inheritance of his mother, Hedwiga. He found 
many partisans in the country, where it was feared 
that the connection with the Habsburg dynasty 
might ultimately lead to the absorption of the 
kingdom by that mighty house, and Uladislaus I. 
was duly elected King of Hungary. The widowed 
Queen, taking with her the crown and her newly- 
born child, Ladislaus Posthumus, fled the country, 
taking refuge with her kinsman, the Emperor 
Frederick III., to whom she pledged the Hungarian 

Hungary threatened by Turkish Invasion 

Whilst this was going on, the attitude of the Turks 
became most menacing. Fortunately for Hungary 
a great star appeared suddenly on the horizon in 
the person of John Hunyady, who proved to be the 
greatest hero of the Middle Ages. Hunyady formed 
a small army of horsemen at his own expense and 
boldly faced the enormous force of Turkish troops. 



He defeated and humiliated three successive Sultans, 
pursuing them through Wallachian, Servian, and 
Bulgarian territories, and spreading terror among 
them. In the twelve glorious battles which he fought, 
two only were lost, one being the battle of Varna 
(1444), where King Ladislaus made a false move 
and lost his life. Hunyady was then chosen Captain- 
General, pending the coming-of-age of the young 
King Ladislaus, and successfully held the Turks at 
bay. The last battle that he fought was the glorious 
victory of Belgrade, in commemoration of which a 
papal Bull was issued, ordaining the tolling of the 
church bells at noon for all time to come throughout 
the length and breadth of Christendom. His death, 
which took place a few weeks later, in the year 
1456, was mourned by the whole of Europe. 

King Matthias (1458-90) 

The reign of Ladislaus was only of short duration, 
and after his death Matthias, the son of John Hun- 
yady, was elected King of Hungary, and proved to 
be the wisest and most just of Hungarian rulers. 
He took Servia and Bosnia under his protection, 
and organised the first Huszar regiment, which 
became a pattern for the whole world. Matthias 
expelled the Turks from the frontier towns and 
pursued them into Servia and Bosnia, and Sultan 
Bajazet had to conclude peace with him for eight 
years. Matthias then directed his troops against 
the Emperor Frederick III., who would not give 
up the crown of Hungary, which Albert's widow 




Published by special permission of His Highness 


pledged with him, and also adopted a hostile attitude 
towards the Hungarians whilst they were engaged 
in war with the Turks. Matthias defeated the 
Emperor Frederick, captured Vienna, which he made 
his capital, and drove the Emperor out of his 
Austrian dominions, of which he only regained pos- 
session after the death of King Matthias. 

Defeat of the Hungarians at Mohacs (1526) 

Matthias died in 1490, and was succeeded by 
Uladislaus of Bohemia, of the House of Jagiellos. 
Under this monarch and his son Louis II. the power 
of Hungary rapidly declined, and the Turks invaded 
the country again with 200,000 men under Suleiman. 
At the battle of Mohacs, in 1526, the Hungarians 
were totally defeated, and King Louis II., whilst 
retreating from the battle-field, was thrown from his 
horse and perished in the swampy marshes which 
surrounded the battle-field. The Turks followed up 
their victory and devastated the country all along 
the Danube right up to Buda, after which they 
withdrew with large spoils. 

The Rival Kings 

The Hungarian throne having become vacant 
after the disastrous defeat at Mohacs, a large number 
of the Hungarian magnates elected John Szapolyai, 
a Hungarian noble and Waiwode of Transylvania, 
as King ; others, however, sided with Queen Maria 
(widow of King Louis), who advocated the cause 
of her brother, the Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, 

49 e 


who was married to Anna of Hungary, sister of the 
late King Louis II. 

Ferdinand was duly elected at the National 
Assembly held at Pozsony (Pressburg), and was sub- 
sequently crowned in accordance with the Hungarian 
Constitutional Laws at Szekesfehervar, where the 
Kings of Hungary, from the days of St. Stephen, 
were wont to be crowned. 

Division of Hungary 

Ferdinand (1526-64), on the death of Louis II., 
became also King of Bohemia, and with it became 
possessed of Moravia, and also succeeded in the year 
1556 his brother Emperor Charles V. in the imperial 
dignity. The election, as King, of the Archduke 
Ferdinand, caused internal troubles, the Sultan 
supporting the cause of John Szapolyai, invading 
Hungary in 1529 with a large army, capturing Buda, 
and pursuing Ferdinand's forces as far as Vienna. 
In the year 1538 it was agreed by a special treaty 
at Nagy Varad that the country should be divided 
among the two contesting rulers, both bearing the 
title of king, and at the death of Szapolyai the 
whole should revert to Archduke Ferdinand or his 
heirs. Transylvania was made independent and was 
to be ruled by John Szapolyai, and after his death 
by his successors. This brought peace to the 
country for some time, but on the death of Szapolyai 
in 1540, the people in Lower Hungary declared in 
favour of his infant son, Sigismund, in which claim 
he was supported by the Sultan, who again invaded 



Published by special permission op H.H. the Duke of Teck 

Photo by T. Weston and Son 


the country and held a large portion of it in 
trust for Sigismund. Maximilian, who succeeded 
his father, the Emperor Ferdinand, in 1564, found 
his rights contested by Sigismund, and it was only 
after a treaty in 1570 between the two rival 
kings and the death of Sigismund in 1571 that the 
Emperor Maximilian became the acknowledged ruler 
of the entire country except Transylvania, which 
was recognised as an independent principality, and 
where Stephen Bathory was elected Prince. From 
that period the Sovereigns of Hungary were identical 
with those of Austria and the other dominions of 
the House of Habsburg. Hungary, however, in 
electing the Habsburg dynasty as its rulers had never 
lost its right of being a constitutional country, and was, 
and is now, ruled in accordance with its own laws, 
regardless of the other dominions of its King. 

Struggle with the Turks 

In electing the Habsburg dynasty to the throne 
of Hungary, the Hungarians naturally had hoped 
that this mighty House would be able to expel the 
Turks from the country, but in this respect they 
were bitterly disappointed, and for a period of over 
160 years the bulk of the nation was constantly 
engaged with the Turks in the defence of their 
country. During this time the Hungarians per- 
formed heroic deeds of bravery worthy of Hellas 
and Sparta. At Koszeg (1532) Miklos Jurisics, 
with only 700 men, principally peasants from the 
district, barred the progress of Sultan Suleiman on 

51 e 2 


his way to Vienna with an army of 200,000 men. 
With a small force of 2,000 men, Losonczy (whose 
wife sold her jewels in order to furnish the means) 
defended for a long time Temesvar (1552) against 
50,000 assailants. At Dregely in the same year 
George Szondy, with a handful of men, resisted for 
a long time the numerous forces of the Turks, and 
seeing that no further resistance was possible, rather 
than surrender he made preparation for his funeral 
on the capture of the fort. At Eger, Stephen Dobo 
(1552) with 2,000 men, consisting chiefly of peasants 
aided by patriotic women, defeated a Turkish force 
of 100,000 men. The very name of Szigetvar sends 
a thrill of patriotism through the heart of every true 
Hungarian, for here in 1566 the great hero Miklos 
Zrinyi held out most heroically with a small body of 
25,000 men against a mighty force of 90,000 of Sulei- 
man's men. Fighting desperately till his number was 
reduced to 300 men, and seeing there was no chance 
of further resistance, he and his comrades arrayed 
themselves in holiday attire and, with drawn swords, 
opened the gates and then blew up the fort, pre- 
ferring to die in this way rather than surrender. 
For over a century and a half the Hungarians 
immortalised themselves in the numerous battles 
fought against the Turks, and hero upon hero 
followed each other with lightning rapidity. 

Religious Persecutions 

But, sad to say, not only did the Hungarians 
have to fight the Turks, but they had on repeated 



Published by special permission op H.H. the Duke of Teck 

Photo, Hill and Saunders, Eton 


occasions to defend their country against their own 
kings, who in Hungary, as in Germany, persecuted 
the Protestants, and deprived the country of its 
constitutional rights. This was especially the case 
during the reign of Rudolph I. (1576-1608), and in 
this movement the Hungarians were led by Stephen 
Bocskay. The latter defeated Rudolph's forces, 
which led to the conclusion of peace in 1606, whereby 
the liberties of the Protestants were guaranteed. 

The persecutions, however, were renewed during 
the reign of Ferdinand II. (1619-37), the hero of the 
Thirty Years' War. A champion was then found 
in Gabor (Gabriel) Bethlen, Prince of Transylvania, 
who attacked the King's forces, and obliged him to 
conclude a treaty of peace first in 1622, and again 
in 1626, whereby the privileges of the Protestants 
were absolutely guaranteed. 

During the reign of Ferdinand III. (1637-57) 
these persecutions were again renewed, and this 
time Gyorgy (George) Rakoczy I., Prince of Tran- 
sylvania, came to the rescue of his Hungarian 
brethren. He attacked Ferdinand's forces and 
gained several victories (1644). George Rakoczy 
made an alliance with the King of Sweden against 
Ferdinand, in consequence of which the Emperor 
was forced to conclude a treaty of peace (1645 and 

The persecutions of the Protestants continued 
again, and even with greater violence, during the 
reign of Leopold I. (1657-1705), who also curtailed 
the privileges of the Hungarian nation and treated 
the country as a mere province, all matters being 



decided in Vienna. In consequence of this a 
plan was initiated by Ferencz Wesselenyi, late 
Palatine, for the dethronement of the Habsburg 

Wesselenyi was suddenly taken ill, and he died 
before the execution of the plan. The conspiracy, 
however, was divulged after his death, and the 
ringleaders of the plot, which included amongst 
others Peter Zrinyi, Count Frangepan, Palatin 
Nadasdi, and Ferencz Rakoczy I., were, with the 
exception of the last named, executed. 

Fearful persecutions followed, which led to a 
second revolt under Imre Thokoli. He obtained 
possession of the greater part of Hungary, and 
concluded an alliance with the Sultan, who nomi- 
nated him King of Hungary, and sent a large army 
of 150,000 men to bombard Vienna. For seven 
weeks (1683) the city was besieged, and at one time 
its surrender seemed to be a question of hours only, 
when suddenly John Szobieszky, King of Poland, 
came to the rescue of Prince Charles of Lorraine, 
who conducted the defence of the city, and drove 
the Turks from the gates of Vienna, obliging them 
to take flight back to Buda. 

Thokoli, in the meantime, aided by his wife, 
the great heroine known to history as Ilona Zrinyi, 
took possession of the best part of the country. 
Finding himself, however, in the end, deserted by 
his followers, who considered it was an opportune 
moment to expel the Turks from Hungary, and his 
wife having been captured and taken as a prisoner 
to Vienna, he left the country and took refuge in 



Turkey, awaiting there a favourable opportunity 
when he could release his wife from prison and 
reconquer the country from the Germans. 

The country now being freed from internal 
trouble, the Hungarians hastened to join the King's 
flag, and attacked the Turks at Buda. After nine 
weeks' struggle the Turks surrendered Buda, and 
for the first time for 145 years the Hungarian flag 
was hoisted over the historic castle of Buda (1686). 

Prince Charles pursued the enemy into the interior 
of the country, and at Mohacs, the place where 161 
years before the Turks destroyed the Hungarian 
army, they were thoroughly defeated by the Hun- 
garians. The Turks were pursued and attacked at 
Belgrade, Bosnia was retaken, and gradually the 
greater part of Servia was reconquered. The 
Christian armies were everywhere victorious till 1690. 

Annexation of Transylvania to Hungary 

Later the Turks assisted Thokoli again in his 
revolt, but they were defeated, and Thokoli had to 
take refuge in Turkey. This victory led to the re- 
annexation of Transylvania to the Crown of Hungary. 
Hardly, however, had the Turks left the country, 
when the Hungarians were subjected to most cruel 
treatment ; hundreds of the best-known Hungarians 
were arrested on the slightest possible pretence or 
suspicion for conspiracy against the Crown, and 
were summarily executed. 



Revolution Headed by Francis Rak6czy II. 

This cruel treatment led to another rising, of 
which Francis Rakoczy II. (son of Ilona Zrinyi, the 
heroine, and stepson of Thokoli) was the leader, who 
spread the revolt throughout the country, taking 
one fort after another, and even bombarding Vienna. 
Rakoczy occupied the whole of Upper Transylvania 
right to Transylvania, of which principality he was 
chosen Prince. The Emperor Leopold, alarmed at 
the success of Rakoczy, sued for peace, but nothing 
came of it, and when he died (1705) the country 
was in open revolt. 

Joseph I. (1705-11) 

The Emperor Joseph I., upon his accession to the 
throne, offered to re-establish the Hungarian Constitu- 
tional Laws and to respect the Protestant faith, and 
sought the intervention of the British Ambassador 
to approach Rakoczy for the conclusion of peace. 
By the treaty of Szatmar (1711) the constitutional 
rights of Hungary and freedom to Protestants were 
guaranteed, and an amnesty proclaimed also to all 
political offenders. Rakoczy, who did not care to 
accept the amnesty for himself, left Hungary for 
ever, accompanied by a few of his faithful adherents, 
going first to Poland, then to the Court of Louis XIV. 
of France, and finally settled in Turkey, where he 
died at Rodosto. Since that period down to the 
third decade of the last century, which ultimately 



Published by special pebmission of His 'Serene Highness 

Photo b>i W. and D. Downey 


led to the War of Independence in 1848, as we shall 
see, no movement took place for the separation of 
Hungary from the other dominions of the House of 

The Pragmatic Sanction 

In the reign of Charles III. (1711-1740), who had 
no male descendants, the Pragmatic Sanction was 
introduced, decreeing the hereditary rights of the 
female descendants to the throne. The Pragmatic 
Sanction also guaranteed to Hungary the right to 
be ruled in accordance with its own Constitution, 
regardless of the other states of the Habsburg 

The Hungarians come to the Rescue of Maria 


Maria Theresia (1740-1780) succeeded to the 
throne and became riiler of the German Empire, 
Hungary, the German Netherlands, Tuscany and 
Lombardy. Her rights, however, were disputed by 
the Elector of Bavaria and the Kings of Prussia, 
Spain, France and Sardinia, and Poland, who 
invaded all her dominions except Hungary. The 
young Queen retired to the ancient Hungarian 
capital, Pozsony (Pressburg), and here she convened 
the National Assembly, and holding her recently 
born child in her arms, pleaded for the chivalrous 
protection of the Hungarians. The Magyars, moved 
by the sad situation of the Queen, forgot all the 



injustice done to them in the past, and the members 
of the Assembly, with drawn swords in their hands, 
uttered the historic exclamation, " Vitam et san- 
guinem pro rege nostro Maria Theresia ! " (" We live 
and die for our king "). (She was considered as a 
king in accordance with Hungarian laws.) Very 
soon a strong Hungarian army faced the united 
French and Bavarian forces, driving them out from 
Bohemia and Bavaria and pursuing them across the 
Rhine as far as Alsace. Another detachment 
attacked Frederick the Great, defeating him in 
Bohemia, after which the Hungarian troops advanced 
into Prussia and occupied Berlin, and the Queen's 
enemies had to sue for peace. 

Maria Theresia, grateful to the Hungarians, 
improved the condition of the peasantry and devoted 
herself to the welfare of the country. 

Joseph II. (1780-90) was also favourably dis- 
posed towards the Hungarians. He emancipated 
the peasantry, who till then were regarded as serfs, 
established many schools, and encouraged the arts 
and industries of the country, but having refused to 
be crowned King of Hungary, and also acted without 
consulting Parliament, he was not popular with the 
people. Before his death, however, he re-estab- 
lished Hungarian rights, and sent the crown of 
St. Stephen from Vienna to Buda. 

During the short reign of his son, Leopold II. 
(1790-92), the Hungarians gained the upper hand, 
and re-established their constitutional rights in the 
memorable Diet of 1790-91. 



Published by special permission of H.S.H. 

Photo by Rita Martin 


Emperor Francis I. 

Francis I. (1792-1835) sat on the throne at the 
time when the French revolutionary spirit spread 
all over Europe, including Hungary. Then came 
the Napoleonic period, and the Austrians lost their 
Italian possessions, together with Istria, Dalmatia, 
Tyrol, and were engaged in a series of wars with 
Napoleon so well known to the student of history 
of that epoch. Napoleon I. issued a manifesto 
to the Hungarians, inviting them to declare 
themselves independent and elect a king of their 
own, but the Hungarians remained loyal to the 
Habsburg dynasty. At the conclusion of peace, 
however, the Austrians proved to be ungrateful to 
the Hungarians, and persuaded the Emperor Francis 
for the curtailment of the privileges of the Hungarian 
nation. All matters had to be decided at Vienna. 
The schools were in decadence and the Hungarian 
language was not taught ; all books had to be sub- 
mitted to the Austrian censor, and the Hungarian 
Parliament had not been summoned for fourteen 

Ferdinand V. (1835-1848), who succeeded Francis 
I., introduced many reforms, founded many 
schools, and made the Hungarian language the 
official language of the country, but the nation 
demanded the re-establishment of constitutional 
freedom and equality of all classes. In their demands 
the nation was first led by Baron Wesselenyi, and 
later by Louis Kossuth, who, with his masterful 



oratory, won to his cause the entire country, and all 
classes demanded constitutional freedom. The 
Emperor Ferdinand saw no alternative but to 
accede to these demands, and appointed a respon- 
sible Hungarian Ministry. The Viennese, however, 
continually plotted against Hungary, and incited 
the ban of Croatia and also the Serbs in the Banat 
to revolt against Hungary. As a result, the Hun- 
garian Parliament was summoned, and voted 
200,000 soldiers for the national defences. In the 
meantime the Imperial troops having now returned 
from Italy, the King was induced to revoke his 
previous concessions, which led to a general rising. 

Francis Joseph I., Apostolic King of Hungary 

A revolution broke out in Vienna, and the 
Emperor Ferdinand had to abdicate in favour of 
Francis Joseph I. As soon as order was restored in 
Vienna, the Austrians poured into Hungary with 
large forces under Prince Windischgratz, who occu- 
pied Buda. The Hungarian Government retired to 
Debreczen in the lowlands, and organised large 
forces for the defence of the country, with which they 
attacked the Austrian troops, who were defeated on 
all sides and expelled from Hungary. A National 
Assembly was then convened at Debreczen, where 
the independence of the country was proclaimed. 

The Austrians now appealed for help to Russia, 
who invaded Hungary with large forces, and though 
at first they were beaten, ultimately, after several 
months of desperate fighting, the Hungarians sur- 


























































































rendered to them at Vilagos, which ended the War 
of Independence. 

Cruel and hard days followed ; the country was 
treated like a province, and a state of siege existed 
from 1848 to 1859, the Hungarian language having 
been abolished from all schools and Government 

In 1867, after the conclusion of the Austro- 
Prussian War, a reconciliation took place between 
the King and the Hungarians, by the intervention 
of the famous Hungarian statesman, Francis Deak, 
and a compact was made with His Majesty Francis 
Joseph I., by which the Hungarian Constitution 
was restored and perfect freedom and independence 
guaranteed to Hungary as to the administration of its 
national affairs by its own Legislature in accordance 
with the Hungarian Constitutional Laws and regard- 
less of the interests of Austria. At the same time a 
treaty was concluded between Austria and Hungary, 
whereby the army and foreign affairs of both halves 
of the Dual Monarchy are to be administered con- 

On June 8th, 1867, His Majesty Francis Joseph I., 
accompanied by his queen, entered the Hungarian 
capital, Budapest, and they were crowned King and 
Queen of Hungary. 



The House of Rhedey 

We shall now proceed with our sketch of the 
Rhedey family. In accordance with genealogists 
and the family records, it would appear that it was a 
certain Czabanka, who lived in the year 1199, who 
was the first to assume the name of Rhedey de 
Szent Marton, after his possessions in the villages of 
Nagy and Kis Rede and Szent Marton (St. Martin). 

This Czabanka had two sons — Janos I. and 
Peter I. The former seems to have distinguished 
himself in the reign of Andreas II. 

A near kinsman of Czabanka, called Aba Demeter, 
took a leading part in the war against King 
Miczislaw II. of Poland, and afterwards accompanied 
Andrew II., the leader of the Crusaders, to the Holy 

Another member of the family was a Waiwode, 
or ruling prince, of Transylvania, and both he and 
his son, styled Aba Abolbad, rendered great services 
to the country, the former in the reign of Andrew, 
and the latter during the reign of Bela IV. (1235- 
1270), to whom he acted as homo regis, or King's 
Plenipotentiary, at the time of the Tartar invasion. 

With the extinction of the male branch of the 
Arpad dynasty by the death of Andreas III. (1301), 
and the accession to the throne of Charles Robert 
of Anjou (1308-1342), the Rhedey family came again 



Published by kind permission of His Serene Highness Prince 

Alexander of Teck 

From a photo by W. S. Stuart 


into prominence, and we see them taking a leading 
part in the reorganisation of Hungary, which, under 
the rule of the illustrious House of Anjou, was 
destined to become one of the most cultured and 
prosperous states in Europe. Both Peter Rhedey II. 
and Demeter Rhedey did a great deal towards the 
development of the country and received several 
charters from the King and his successor, Louis the 
Great of Hungary (1342-1382). 

During the joint reign of Maria, daughter of 
Louis the Great of Hungary, and her husband, the 
Emperor Sigismund (1382-1437), the Rhedey family 
were specially to the fore, and in the year 1397 we 
find Jakob Rhedey I. acting as homo regis, or Royal 
Plenipotentiary, during the absence from Hungary 
of King Sigismund. 

Peter Rhedey III. (son of Jakob Rhedey) was 
one of those Hungarian nobles, who, in 1442, con- 
ducted the peace negotiations between Uladislaus, 
King of Poland, and Elizabeth, Queen of Hungary 
(1439-42), widow of Albert II., in their dispute over 
the possession of the Hungarian crown. 

When King Matthias ascended the Hungarian 
throne (1458-90), several vast estates were given to 
Dosa Miklos Rhedey for his services to the country. 

Janos III. (1437-85), son of Dosa Miklos VI., 
became a special favourite of King Matthias. In 
1470 he was nominated to the post of Waiwode of 
Transylvania, a very high position in those days, as 
the holder of the office had to keep a vigilant eye 
on the Turks who were menacing the country, which 
they ultimately invaded. 



With the occupation of Buda by the Sultan's 
troops (1541), the Turks practically became the 
masters of that vast and fertile part of Hungary 
situated between the Danube and Tisza, known as 
the Lowlands of Hungary, the owners of which had 
to lay down the plough in order to defend their 
homes against the Turkish hordes. Then came the 
religious persecutions commenced by the Habsburg 
dynasty, and the Magyars had to raise the standard 
of rebellion against their own kings for the protec- 
tion of their religious freedom and national rights. 
During that period Hungary produced many heroes, 
the like of which can only be found in the Trojan 
and Spartan wars, and in these, many of the members 
of the Rhedey family came in for a place of honour. 

There, in the vicinity of their ancient home, was 
situated the important fort of Eger, against which 
the Turks led so many fierce attacks and onslaughts, 
as Eger, owing to its strong position, not only proved 
a secure place of refuge to the peasantry of Lower 
Hungary against the constant attacks of the Turks, 
but owing to its strategic position was also the key 
to Upper Hungary. Here at Eger we find several 
members of the Rhedey family distinguishing them- 
selves. These include the brothers Ferencz I. and 
Pal IV. The last-named earned for himself the 
surname of " Miles Agriensis " for his great military 

It fell, however, to the honour of Ferencz II., 
son of Pal IV., to lay the foundation of the glory 
and grandeur of his house, and to establish his name 
in the history of his country. With him also the 




family history is transplanted from the soil of 
Hungary to that of Transylvania, where his kinsmen, 
despising the Turkish rule and the oppressions of 
the German Emperors in Hungary, established for 
themselves a new home, and there they became the 
champions of freedom and liberty, and when oppor- 
tunity presented itself came to the rescue of their 
oppressed Hungarian brethren. 

Ferencz Rhedey II. 

This noble scion of the Rhedey family was born 
in 1556, and he, like his father and uncles, was 
initiated early in the art of warfare. It was at Eger 
that he gained his first laurels, and there also that 
he was inspired to devote his whole life to the sacred 
cause of his fatherland and to the freedom of religion. 

In the year 1590, at the age of thirty, he was 
appointed by the Emperor Rudolph (1576-1608) to 
the important command of the fort of Flilek, where 
he fought so many glorious battles. Some years 
afterwards, however, he was compelled to relinquish 
his command, having been accused of maintaining 
freebooters, who terrorised the people in the district, 
both peasants and nobles alike. He was impeached 
for his conduct to the Hungarian Diet in the year 1599, 
was condemned to death and to forfeiture of all 
his estates and all his titles and ranks (Law 
XXXVIL— 1599). 

Ferencz Rhedey, however, managed to elude this 
punishment by escaping from the country, and 
taking refuge in Transylvania, he watched for an 

65 » 


opportunity when he could once more unsheath his 
sword for the good of his country. The moment 
seemed to have been favourable to his designs, 
when in the year 1605 Istvan (Stephen) Bocskay 
was Prince of Transylvania. He offered him his 
services, which were promptly accepted, and he was 
entrusted with a leading command in the expedition 
about to start for the invasion of Hungary, with a 
view to expelling the Imperial forces. In recog- 
nition of his successful services, Bocskay, in a decree 
dated Kassa, May 2nd, 1606, raised him to the 
highest rank of nobility, and granted him several 

In the same year Ferencz Rhedey was delegated 
to go to Vienna to assist in the peace negotiations 
which were carried on between the Emperor 
Rudolph II. (1576-1608) and Bocskay, where the 
Emperor was forced to sign a treaty guaranteeing 
the rights of Protestants. 

At a later period the Emperor Matthias II. 
(1608-19) conferred upon Ferencz Rhedey the highest 
military honour, with the title of " Eques Auratus." 

In the glorious reign of Gabor Bethlen (1613-29), 
Ferencz Rhedey, who was closely related to that 
famous Prince of Transylvania, was destined to play 
a very important part, and to distinguish himself 
in the many memorable battles, the outcome of 
which, as we have seen, was that the Emperor 
Ferdinand II. (1619-37) (the hero of the Thirty 
Years' War) was compelled to guarantee the religious 
rights of the Protestants throughout his vast do- 


Published by kind permission of H.H. the Duke of Teck 


Ferencz Rhedey, an ardent Protestant, caused the 
Helvetian Confession of Faith to be translated into 
Hungarian, and had it printed at Debreczen in 1616. 
This was the most authentic version of Calvin's 

The glorious military career of Ferencz 
Rhedey II. came to an abrupt end in the year 1621, 
when he died at the Fort of Fiilek, the scene of his 
earliest struggles and victories. 

Ferencz Rhedey, during his lifetime, received 
enormous grants of lands, and at the time of his 
death the Rhedey estates spread over several 

Ferencz Rhedey III. 

Ferencz Rhedey III. was also destined to play 
a very important part in the history of his country. 
At an early age he was appointed by Gyorgy 
Rakoczy I. (1630-48) to the command of the Fort of 
Huszt, St. Jobb, and Nagy Varad respectively, and 
later on became Lord Lieutenant of Maramaros. 
After the failure of George Rakoczy II. 's expedition 
to Poland in 1657 (which had for its object the par- 
tition of Poland between Sweden and Transylvania) 
the Sultan insisted upon the removal of Gyorgy 
Rakoczy from the throne of Transylvania, and 
Ferencz Rhedey III. was elected to the princely 
dignity in his stead. 

Rhedey' s rule, though of short duration, was a 
most eventful one. It was just at the time when 
a crowd of personages followed one another with 
lightning-like rapidity upon the Transylvanian 

67 p 2 


throne. In less than two years five rulers ascended 
and descended the throne, pushing one another from 
its tottering eminence. They were famous men, all 
of whom made themselves a name in history, yet they 
could not maintain themselves on the throne owing 
to the intrigues going on between the Sultan and the 
Emperor to gain the upper hand in the principality. 
Though Rhedey's election was regarded with favour 
both by the Sultan and the Emperor, and he was 
received by all his subjects, yet, as a consequence of 
his election, trouble arose with Gyorgy Rakoczy II., 
the dethroned Prince. Ferencz Rhedey III., in order 
to save his country from eternal strife, abdicated 
voluntarily in favour of Gyorgy Rakoczy II. 

Ferencz Rhedey III. married Druzsina Bethlen, 
niece of Prince Gabor Bethlen, and through his 
marriage a number of estates belonging to the 
Bethlen family became the property of Ferencz 
Rhedey III., and went to increase his already 
vast possessions. 

He was made a noble of the Kingdom of Poland, 
and the Emperor Leopold (1657-1705) conferred 
upon him in 1659 the title of " Count." 

Rhedey's only son, Laszlo IV. (who married 
Agnes Banffy, widow of Akos Barcsay, Prince of 
Transylvania), distinguished himself in 1657 in the 
expedition to Poland. He declined the throne of 
Transylvania offered him by the Sultan. He was a 
man of culture, and his diary of the political events 
of his day was published in 1868 by the Hungarian 
Academy of Science. He died in 1664. 

The glorious career of Ferencz Rhedey came to 




Presented to him by the Sultan op Turkey 

In the possession of His Highness the Duke of Teck 


a sudden end in 1664, when his only son Laszlo died. 
Quite inconsolable, he spent his remaining years 
in seclusion on his estate at Huszt, finding his only 
solace in the foundation of many educational and 
charitable institutions. 

A number of interesting relics which belonged to 
Ferencz Rhedey III. are in the possession of Her 
Majesty the Queen, and the present Duke of Teck 
and his brother, Prince Alexander. The articles 
include a portrait of Ferencz Rhedey and a number 
of swords and pistols presented to Prince Ferencz 
Rhedey by the Sultan of Turkey. 

Romance of Pearl Ear-rings 

A wonderful pair of ear-rings, which belonged to 
the Princess Rhedey, are now in the possession of 
Her Majesty the Queen. A curious story is told of 
these ear-rings, which consist of two enormous 
pearls. It is said that the Princess doubted the possi- 
bility of the stones being real on account of their 
great size, whereupon the Prince, her husband, drew 
his sword and, with a sweep of his weapon, cut one 
of the pearls asunder in *his anger at the doubt upon 
his word, and his desire to prove that the pearl was 
genuine. To this day the ear-ring bears the trace of 
his weapon, and the mark is discernible where it was 
afterwards joined together. These magnificent pearls 
were sometimes, on occasions of great ceremony, worn 
by her late Royal Highness, the Duchess of Teck. 



The Siege of Four Thousand Women 

In connection with Rhedey's election as Prince 
of Transylvania, an amusing story is told by Maurice 
Jdkai, which runs somewhat as follows : — 

There were sad times in Transylvania. George 
Rakdczy II., an heroic and ambitious ruler, was on 
the throne, but not content with being a great 
prince of a small principality, he aspired to the 
crown of Poland. With this purpose he fitted out an 
expedition, in spite of the warning of the Grand 
Vizier that by so doing he would incur the wrath of 
the Sublime Porte. George Rakdczy was not the 
sort of man to be intimidated, and he marched into 
Poland. The result was that the Sultan ordered the 
Khan of Crimea to invade Poland with his Tartar 
hordes in order to oppose the Transylvanian forces. 

The latter were totally defeated, Rakdczy him- 
self only narrowly escaping, and with a few of his 
followers by circuitous routes reaching Transylvania. 
The remnant of his army, commanded by John 
Kemeny (afterwards Prince of Transylvania), had to 
surrender on the most humiliating terms, many of 
them being carried away to the Crimea, and treated 
with the greatest cruelty at the hands of their 
captors, who demanded very heavy ransom for their 

Amongst the unfortunate captives was a respected 
Transylvanian noble, Thomas Domakos by name, 
the leader of the Szekely contingent. It having come 
to the ears of the Tartars that Domakos was pos- 
sessed of great wealth, one of his lieutenants was 




































1— 1 







































































v /; 






























despatched to his wife with a view to obtaining his 
ransom. The amount, however, demanded was so 
heavy that his wife, Ilka, had to pledge the famous 
family jewels, when she at once started to the 
frontier, where her husband, in charge of a strong 
Tartar escort, was waiting for her. In those good old 
days the precipitous mountain passes offered lavish 
hospitality to those who made brigandage their occu- 
pation, and it is little wonder that they should be 
on the alert when such a considerable sum was being 
conveyed for the relief of the captives. 

Ilka's party was, therefore, attacked and deprived 
of all their possessions, though the brigands were 
gallant enough to allow Ilka and her companions to 
escape back to Transylvania. The Tartar Khan was 
naturally infuriated at the promised ransom not 
arriving, and poor Domakos was put into chains and 
carried back to the Crimea, where he was condemned 
to perform the meanest labours, and treated with 
the utmost harshness and cruelty, receiving more 
lashes than crusts. 

In the meantime Ilka, who had reached home, 
left no stone unturned to negotiate the release of her 
husband, but all her plans failed, as now the Tartars 
demanded a tenfold higher ransom than before, a 
sum too large for her to raise. At last an idea 
occurred to her as to a way by which she could 
attain her cherished end by appealing to Prince 

" I will collect around me," she declared, " all 
the women in Transylvania whose husbands are in 
captivity, and we shall march to the spot where the 



National Assembly is now being held, force our way 
into the Diet, and refuse to depart till the members 
have found the means to release our husbands. If 
needful we will attack the Prince's palace. It was 
the Prince who caused our unhappy husbands to be 
carried away, and it is his duty to secure their 

She immediately gave orders for her horse to be 
saddled and, followed by a single attendant, she 
galloped to Csikszereda, where the weekly market was 
being held. There she took up a position in front 
of the church, and ordering her attendant to give a 
mighty blast from his hunting-horn, she was soon 
surrounded by an eager crowd, mostly composed of 
women from the neighbouring towns and villages. 
With tears in her eyes she reminded those around her 
of the sad plight of their husbands far away in the 
Crimea, urging them to do all in their power to secure 
their release. 

Moved by her impressive speech, Ilka's hearers 
promised one and all to accompany her. " Lead us 
to the National Assembly and to the Prince ! " they 
cried. The few men in the crowd who endeavoured 
to dissuade them from their project were shouted 
down. " We want no man to help us ! " and one of 
the women snatched the hunting-horn from Ilka's 
male attendant, told him boldly they had no need 
of him, as she could blow the trumpet with all the 
skill of the oldest soldier, and at this signal the crowd 
of women set forth towards Dees, where the National 
Assembly was then sitting and the Prince in resi- 
dence. On the way the women of the villages they 




passed joined the army, some on horseback and 
some in vehicles of every description. Such was the 
dust that this huge mob raised, that long before they 
reached Dees, the sentinel in the watch-tower, mis- 
taking them for an approaching army of men, gave 
the alarm. The Prince, momentarily expecting the 
Turks to invade his territory, gave instant orders 
that a detachment of Huszars be despatched to 
meet the army. Much to the surprise of the com- 
mander, instead of facing Turkish troops, he found 
the invaders to consist of thousands of women carry- 
ing banners draped in black. " We are making for 
the palace of the Prince," they shouted, " to secure 
the release of our husbands." The commander imme- 
diately galloped back, and informed the Prince that 
an enormous army was approaching demanding the 
release of the Transylvanian captives in the Crimea ; 
he forgot to mention, however, that the crowd con- 
sisted only of women. The Prince, alarmed at this 
report, as Dees was not fortified, and therefore 
exposed to attack, instantly gave orders for the 
removal of the Court to Szamosujvar, and in no time 
the remnant of his troops and his Court, followed by 
the members of the National Assembly, were on their 
way to that town, so that when Ilka and her army of 
women arrived, they found Dees practically deserted. 
Undaunted by this mishap, " Never mind," cried 
Ilka, " we shall yet reach them ; the world is not 
large enough for them to escape from us ! " After a 
rest in the town, where they were joined by a further 
number of women from the adjoining neighbourhood, 
Ilka and her faithful army moved on. 



In the meantime, Rakoczy and his Court had 
reached Szamosujvar, and had installed themselves 
in the fortified castle there. In great haste a building 
was temporarily prepared for the reception of the 
Diet. It was one of the most memorable Parliaments 
in the history of the Principality. All the members 
from far and wide expressed a desire to take part in 
the deliberations ; the very existence of the country 
was at stake. On the one hand they had to find the 
means to release their unhappy countrymen from 
Tartar captivity, and at the same time oppose a 
large army of the Turkish Sultan, whose troops were 
on their way to the Principality. 

The members of the Diet were highly incensed 
at the action of the Prince, who, by his expedition 
to Poland, had plunged the country into such misery, 
and it needed all the tact of Francis Rhedey, the 
President of the Assembly, to keep the members in 
order. Resolution after resolution was passed, and 
messenger after messenger was despatched to the 
Prince to receive his sanction, but, alas, in vain ; 
he was not to be approached, his surgeons urging 
that he was suffering from a severe heart seizure, a 
malady which the writers of the period suggest 
was one of those chronic indispositions to which the 
Prince seemed invariably subject at such moment 
as it did not quite suit him to face the Assembly, and 
when at times it pleased him to recover from his 
attack, he would plead that his treasury was empty. 
The Diet was at its wits' end to know what to do 
next. From day to day they had to bribe the emis- 
saries of the Sultan with precious gifts so as to dis- 



suade them from carrying out their threats of 
invading the country, and demanding the dismissal 
of Rakoczy from power. The Prince, however, as 
has been stated, refused to see the deputations sent 

It was at this critical moment that Ilka Domakos 
and her army of women approached the scene. 

On this day the chroniclers record a strange 
phenomenon as appearing in the sky ; the sun was 
shining in all its brilliance, when suddenly a large 
halo was perceived round it, and at the same time 
three smaller, paler suns appeared in the vast 
circle, obscuring the sun itself. Everyone watched 
this strange phenomenon with greatest wonder, 
prophesying that it portended some ill omen, some 
urging that it foreshadowed the rule of four princes 
at once in the land, a prophecy which, as we know, 
was fulfilled, though of the two wonders the earthly 
wonder was perhaps the greatest. 

In watching this strange sight it escaped the 
attention of the populace that another phenomenon 
was occurring in their midst ; the army of women, 
which was drawing near, had surrounded the fortress 
in the most disciplined manner. 

Having accomplished this movement Ilka headed 
a deputation to the Assembly consisting of a hundred 
of her companions, comprising the noblesse of Tran- 

They were met in front of the Diet by the 
sergeant-at-arms, who asked the deputation whither 
they were going. Ilka Domakos at once replied, " We 
desire admission to the Diet in order to effect the 




release of our captive husbands." " A glorious idea," 
replied the courtly gentleman, " it is quite a apropos ; 
the matter is just being discussed at this moment. 
Pray walk in." 

With this the deputation of women entered the 
Assembly. At the time of the arrival of Ilka and her 
deputation, a heated discussion was proceeding, the 
members of the Council of State having been repri- 
manded severely for having advised the Prince to 
undertake his expedition into Poland without the 
previous consent of the Assembly, and the member 
speaking roused the sympathy of the House by 
pointing, in a dramatic manner, at the large number 
of distinguished ladies present whose husbands had 
been seized by the Turks and carried away into 
cruel captivity as a result of this reckless expedition. 
The members of the Council, one after another, in 
vain tried to justify themselves, but the general 
uproar was such that they could not be heard. 

At last Francis Rhedey rose to speak, and, as 
behoved with one who was so greatly revered by all, 
silence fell on the House. Rhedey assured the 
Assembly that neither he nor any other member of 
the Supreme Council of State had had the smallest 
knowledge of the ill-fated expedition, which the 
Prince had undertaken entirely on his own responsi- 
bility. Yet, he urged, it became their duty now to 
support the Prince in his hour of adversity, and when 
on a sick bed, advising as the wisest course that they 
should despatch a deputation forthwith to the Prince 
to acquaint him with what had transpired in the 
House, and insisting on his taking such steps as 



(Great-Grandfather of Her Majesty) 

Reproduced from a portrait, by special permission of Baroness Odon de Horvdth, 
nee Countess de Rhedey 


would secure the immediate release of the Tran- 
sylvanian captives, and facilitate the peace negotia- 
tions between the Sultan and the Principality. 

This proposition was accepted with unanimous 
applause, and the House was just about to adjourn 
for the day, the dinner hour having sounded, when 
suddenly Ilka Domakos arose, and turning towards 
the Assembly, exclaimed, in clear and decisive tones, 
" Gentlemen, if you think we women have come here 
to listen to your fine oratory, you are very much 
mistaken. We have come to ask you to effect the 
release of our husbands, and you shall not leave this 
House till you have come to a final decision on this 
point. You are in a great hurry to get away to your 
dinners, but you forget that ninety thousand sons of 
Transylvania are at this moment starving in degrada- 
tion, captives in the hands of the wild and savage 
Tartars. No, you shall not escape us so easily." At 
this a great hubbub arose among the members, some 
protesting against this outbreak of the women who 
dared thus to disturb Parliamentary discipline ; 
others, however, were inclined to take their part. 

In the meantime, an even greater tumult arose 
outside the Assembly. Ilka's army of women, who 
till now had been satisfied to peep in through the 
windows and doors of the House, were trying to force 
their way into the Parliament, and the sentries found 
themselves powerless to resist the intruders. In no 
time the House was invaded by hundreds of women, 
who practically took possession of the whole 
Assembly. It was useless to attempt to pacify them, 
for a hundred tongues were now all talking at once. 



Francis Rhedey, the Speaker, at length obtaining 
a hearing, pointed out to them that it was this very 
subject that the House was deliberating, and he 
begged Countess Ilka to depart in peace and not 
cause any disturbance in the sacred precincts of the 
Diet. " But what is the good of deliberating ? " asked 
Ilka ; " the emissaries of the Sultan are here at our 
gates. Give them the money they demand and our 
husbands will be freed." " But, honoured lady," 
courteously retorted Rhedey, " where is to be found 
the enormous sum that is demanded ? " " What is 
the good of asking me such a question ? What is the 
good of our Assembly when the members have to ask 
a woman where they are to get their money from ? ' r 
— a reply which caused much laughter. 

" However, if you wish to know, I will tell you. 
As you are aware, our late revered Prince George 
Rakoczy I. left a large fund to be used only when 
his country was in danger and in urgent need ; surely 
there has never been a greater need than now ? " 
" Excellent idea," exclaimed many of the members, 
and it was unanimously agreed that this fund should 
be devoted to the purpose demanded, the ladies being 
courteously requested by Francis Rhedey to depart in 
peace, as the House was about to adjourn. " But it 
is all very well," replied the persistent Ilka, " for you 
to agree with this idea, but what is the use if the 
money is, after all, not forthcoming. You all know 
well that as soon as Prince Rakoczy' s widow learns 
of the decision of the Assembly, she will quickly pack 
up her belongings and leave the Principality for her 
Hungarian estate, where the House has no juris- 



(Great-Grandmother op Her Majesty) 
From a painting, by kind permission of Cotintess Odon de Horvitth 


diction. I should advise the instant arrest of the 
Princess." Upon this a great hubbub arose, it being 
felt that this was going too far, but it was finally 
agreed that a deputation be despatched to the 
Dowager Princess, acquainting her of the resolution 
of the House, and requesting her presence before 
them. A deputation was therefore sent to Prince 
Rakoczy to make known to him the resolution of 
the Diet. 

The Prince for once happened to be genuinely 
indisposed, and indeed was so irritated at the con- 
stant series of deputations sent to him that he signed 
the decree presented him without at first realising 
its serious nature. Everyone in the Diet was 
astounded and pleased at the Prince having given 
his consent to such a step, and only Ilka remained 
suspicious. " Do not be so elated ! " she exclaimed 
to her companions. " Let us at once hasten to sur- 
round the Castle, so that the Prince may be pre- 
vented from sending any messages to the Princess 
Rakoczy at Fogaras, giving her a chance to escape to 
Hungary." The idea was an excellent one, but, alas, 
the women arrived too late ; for barely had the 
deputation from the Diet departed, than Rakoczy, 
without delay, despatched a messenger in disguise 
to the Princess, informing her of her imminent 
arrest, and advising her to fly from the country, 
while at the same time he sent another messenger to 
his garrison at Kolozsvar and Gyulafehervar, desiring 
them to hold themselves in immediate readiness. 

His attitude, it must be remembered, was not 
one dictated by any unpatriotic opposition to the 



Diet, but he was thirsting to revenge his defeat by 
the Turks, and to effect the release of the captives, 
not with gold and silver, but with cold steel. 

When the Diet learned of the escape of the 
Princess Rakoczy they were much incensed against 
George Rakoczy, whom they accused of playing a 
double game. Further, they were being pressed hard 
by the Sultan's envoy, who had informed them that 
his master would agree to no other terms but the 
instant dismissal from the throne of Prince Rakoczy, 
and the election of another prince in his stead, failing 
which, the Turkish troops would invade the territory 
and lay waste the land. Realising that they had now 
no other alternative than to comply with these 
demands, the Assembly solemnly promised the 
dethronement of Prince George Rakoczy, and by 
unanimous acclamation Francis Rhedey was elected 
his successor. Seizing on the person of their revered 
Speaker, and lifting him up in his chair, they carried 
him in triumph round the House. 

In vain Rhedey begged to be heard ; the enthu- 
siasm was intense, but at last, peremptorily demand- 
ing to be listened to, he modestly urged that he was 
not fitted for such a post at his age, that another 
more capable than he should be elected, and finally 
entreated them to proceed with the election in more 
constitutional order by a series of secret votes. His 
dignified advice was followed, but the election was 
duly confirmed. 

Such was the uproar that it could be heard far 
outside the House, reaching even the ears of Prince 
George Rakoczy in his castle, as standing at one of 



(Her Majesty's Grandmother) 

lif produced from a painting, by kind permission of Baroness Od'm de Horvdth, 
nie Countess de li/iedei/ 


the windows he, with pale stern face, looked out on 
to the Parliament, where he could see his family 
banner already lowered from the flagstaff where the 
national standard was flying. 

A few moments later his trumpet sounded, the 
gate of the fortress was opened, and the Prince on 
horseback, drawn sword in hand, and surrounded by 
his troops, marched out of the castle. It would have 
been an easy task for him to enter the Assembly and, 
with the soldiers at his command, compel the 
members to rescind their decision, but his way was 
barred by the crowd of women, who, by their 
threatening attitude, were evidently prepared to put 
obstacles in his way. His natural gallantry led him 
to pause. At this moment Ilka Domokos threw her- 
self before him. " You need not hesitate," she cried. 
" Go on ; slaughter us with the sword in your hand. 
You could do no good with it against your enemies ; 
go on and kill your own people. Life for us has no 
object, as our husbands are far away suffering 

George Rakoczy grew pale with anger ; the words 
seemed to deal him a harder blow than any he had 
received at the hands of his enemies. Just as he was 
reflecting a trumpet-call was heard. Rakoczy was 
startled ; he recognised at once that it was not the 
call of his own men, but that of the Turkish troops. 
Looking round he saw the Turkish Envoy, attired in 
gala uniform, galloping towards him accompanied 
by a small detachment of soldiers. Quite ignoring 
the presence of the Prince, the Envoy halted in 
front of the House, and unfolded and forthwith read 

81 G 


a huge parchment document, the Sultan's irade to 
the people of Transylvania, informing them that 
unless they instantly dismissed from the throne 
Prince George Rakoczy, and elected a successor, 
their dominions would be invaded and the country 
put to fire and sword. At the conclusion of this 
insolent message Rakoczy, his face flushed and his 
eyes bloodshot with indignation, raised his head 
with dignity, and glancing around him, simply 
exclaimed, " Let those who like to meet the Pasha 
of Buda and defeat him in the field follow me " ; and 
with these words still on his lips galloped off amidst 
the enthusiasm of his troops, still faithful to their 

Just as Rakoczy reached the limits of the town 
he cast a final glance behind him towards his castle, 
where at that moment he saw a new banner being 
hoisted on the flagstaff, side by side with the National 
Standard, the double-tailed lion rampant, the banner 
of the Rhedey family. " Ha ! " said the Prince to 
Laszlo Rhedey (the son of Francis Rhedey), who was 
riding by his side as one of his principal aides-de- 
camp, " who would have dreamed that it would have 
been your father, the modest, retiring gentleman, 
who would push me from my throne." Laszlo smiled. 
" You can take it for granted," he replied, " that he 
has been driven to it. You may be sure that no one 
will be more grateful than he when the time comes 
for you to relieve him of his responsibilities." " I 
think you are right," replied Rakoczy, and gave 
orders for his troops to advance with all speed on 
Dioszeg, near the River Maros ; there, with a hand- 



ful of men, he boldly faced the numerous Turkish 
forces, which he eventually almost annihilated. But 
this victory did not end the war. It was only the 
commencement of a series of battles which lasted for 
months, from which, however, Rakoczy emerged the 
conqueror, till finally the all-powerful Sultan had to 
submit, not only to the humiliation of being defeated 
by Rakoczy, but, on the abdication of Francis 
Rhedey, of seeing Rakoczy once more called to 
occupy the throne of Transylvania. 

Rakoczy was true to his word as regards the 
release of the captives in the Crimea, whose freedom 
he did not purchase by gold and silver, but by the 
steel of his trusty sword. 

How Rhedey Outwitted Taltossy 

Another amusing story is also related of Ferenez 
Rhedey by the same author, and runs somewhat 
as follows : — 

In the extreme north-east of Hungary, just 
where the great Hungarian lowlands meet the 
Carpathian Mountains, stands the town of Huszt. 
There is a ruin hard by, a relic of the mighty fort 
which, in olden days, was one of the strategic keys 
between Hungary and Transylvania and the Mol- 
davian and Wallachian principalities. 

It was no wonder, therefore, the Turks, Germans, 
Hungarian, and Transylvanian princes strove in turn 
for possession of this important stronghold. 

At the time when the story commences, the fort 
was held by Taltossy, a powerful rebel. It was easy 

83 q 2 


at this time for a leader of a revolt to gain a formid- 
able footing, for if he carried on warfare against the 
Hungarians, he would have the powerful Turk as an 
ally, and if it suited him to change his tactics, the 
Turk would be his enemy and the German his friend. 

Taltossy was a powerful man, and no one could 
oust him from the fort of Huszt, especially as he 
was one of those mediaeval heroes who made it 
known far and wide that should the enemy force 
their way into the fort he would blow it up with 
himself, his guards, and the enemy into the bargain. 

On the other hand, he was of a humorous dis- 
position, and had often announced that should any 
one of his enemies outwit him, he would surrender 
without firing a shot. 

It was Prince Francis Rhedey who accepted the 
challenge. Hero as Taltossy was, he had one par- 
ticular weakness — common to many people — he ima- 
gined himself to be an invalid at times, a fact of 
which Rhedey was aware. The genial Prince sat 
down and wrote the following lines : — 

" My dear Captain and Hero, — Though we have on many 
occasions fought against each other, this does not prevent me, 
as a Sovereign Prince and soldier, from recognising your heroic 
courage ; indeed, the more fiercely your bullets rain in our 
camp, the more I learn with sorrow that you are dangerously 
ill ; I, therefore, trust you will permit me to pay you a visit of 
sympathy. You need not be afraid, for I shall be alone and 

Taltossy, immediately on receipt of this letter, 
felt much gratification that the mighty Prince of 
Transylvania should write to him in such terms, and 
the next moment he was lying in bed with heavy 



blankets and cushions, " very dangerously ill " ; he 
was at the time suffering from high fever. 

He rang the bell and asked the servant to bring 
him pen and ink, and when these came and were 
placed on a little table by the bed, he sat up and 
wrote the following lines : — 

" Illustrious Prince, — Thanks for your sympathy ; I shall 
feel proud to receive a visit from you. I am very ill indeed, 
but still I am not afraid of my opponents, and therefore you 
can bring your sword and your army as well." 

Rhedey, on the receipt of this letter, ordered his 
carriage, and, after a few hours' drive, he found 
himself outside the gates of the castle of Huszt. 
He was immediately admitted to the presence of 
Taltossy, especially as he was alone and unarmed. 

The meeting was of a most affectionate nature, 
and heavy tears rolled from the eyes of Taltossy, who 
was overcome by the kindness of the Prince. 

Rhedey approached the bed and said, " Ah, Tal- 
tossy, you seem very dangerously ill. I am a bit of 
a doctor myself ; let me feel your pulse." 

He placed his fingers on Taltossy' s wrist, looked 
very seriously into his face, and said, " Taltossy, you 
are a great hero, and therefore, I trust, you will have 
courage to hear that there is not one day's life in you, 
unless medical aid is summoned at once. There is a 
famous doctor at Szatmar, but he would not come 
to you, for he is a staunch Imperialist, and you are 
a pronounced enemy of his party. But I will send 
up my carriage with a couple of your men to fetch 
him. It will be necessary to have these men to serve 
as guides and escorts." 



Taltossy grasped Rhedey's hand, and ordered 
two of his men to start in the carriage, which was to 
be driven by the Prince's coachman. The doctor 
arrived and he confirmed the grave opinion pro- 
nounced by the Prince, and said he must send the 
carriage back at once to his house for fresh medicine. 
He kept on changing his mind over and over again, 
and each time the carriage went back with two men 
inside as arranged. 

At last Rhedey approached the bed of the invalid 
and said, " Taltossy, my friend, you had better rise ; 
there is no time for you to be ill, for the fortress 
is occupied by my men ; and you are a prisoner in 
my hands." 

" What ? " exclaimed Taltossy. "la prisoner in 
your hands ? How about my loyal men who guard 
the castle ? " 

" Your guards," said Rhedey, smilingly, " changed 
places with mine. As often as the doctor sent my 
carriage for the medicine with two of your men 
inside, the carriage returned with two of my men, 
and the gates of the castle are now guarded by my 

"You have outwitted me, Prince," said Taltossy, 
" here is my sword, I am your prisoner." 

" No, friend Taltossy, you can keep your sword," 
said Rhedey. " But I hope you have no objection 
if I take charge of the fort." 


The Transylvanian Branch 

With the death of Francis Rhedey the family 
became split into two distinct branches — those 
members of the family remaining in Transylvania 
became known as the Transylvanian branch, whilst 
the others formed the members of the Hungarian 
branch. We need not trouble the reader with any 
details regarding the latter family as, with the excep- 
tion of Count Lajos Rhedey II., to whom special 
reference will be made, few of its members gained 
any particular distinction, and therefore we shall 
confine ourselves merely to the story of the Tran- 
sylvanian branch of the house, more especially as 
from this branch sprung the grandmother of Her 
Majesty Queen Mary and her brothers on her 
father's side. 

This branch of the House of Rhedey, founded 
by Janos V., in course of time became so numerous, 
and its members one and all have in so great a 
measure contributed to the glory of their house and 
country, that it would be a difficult task in a volume 
like this to give even the most meagre account of 
their career. We shall, therefore, have to be 
content with confining our description to the 



principal members of the family, and make special 
reference to those who stood nearest in relationship 
to the maternal ancestors of the late Duke 
of Teck. 

Janos V., the founder of the Transylvanian 
branch of the House of Rhedey, who was brought 
up at the Court of Gabor Bethlen, was intimately 
associated with that great prince in the rule of his 
country. He died about the year 1687. Two of 
his sons, Ferencz V. and Istvan IX., were both men 
of considerable importance, and they and the Telekis 
were considered the leaders of the country. 

Pal VIII. and Adam II., sons of Istvan IX., 
took a prominent part in the rising headed by the 
famous Francis Rakdczy II. (1705-1711). 

After the treaty of Szatmar, in which peace was 
restored to Hungary for a considerable time, the 
Rhedeys, whose chief quality and birthright was 
courage, and who always came to the fore when their 
country was in danger, retired to their estates, and 
endeavoured to ameliorate the condition of the 
people, and whilst refraining from taking an active 
part in the public administration of affairs, they 
were always regarded as the leaders of the country, 
and their voice carried the greatest weight with the 
sovereigns of Hungary. 

During the reign of Maria Theresia, when that 
noble queen had to defend herself almost against 
most of the Continental powers, she found loyal and 
brave adherents amongst the Rhedeys. 



One of Maria Theresia's distinguished Generals 

From a miniature. Publislied by special permission of the Baroness Odon de Horvdtli, 
nee Countess de Rhedey 



Amongst the distinguished members of the family 
who came to the front was Janos VII. — one of those 
Hungarian nobles who were present at the memorable 
Diet of Pozsony (Pressburg), when Maria Theresia 
with her child in her arms appealed to the Hungarian 
nobles for their protection, and they, with drawn 
swords, exclaimed, " Moriamur pro rege nostro 
Maria Theresia ! " Janos VII. took part in a series 
of battles against Prussia in Silesia in the cause of 
Maria Theresia. In 1765 he was promoted to the 
rank of a general, and to the command of the Body 
Guard of Hungarian Nobles, founded by Maria 
Theresia in recognition of her gratitude to the 
Hungarians for their loyal devotion and bravery in 
defending her empire. 

In 1767, feeling his health giving way, he resigned 
his commission in the army, on which occasion 
Maria Theresia wrote to him an autograph letter 
thanking him for the great services rendered by him 
to the country, and imploring him, for the salvation 
of his soul, to change his faith and become a Roman 
Catholic. Count Janos Rhedey, whilst expressing 
his thanks and loyal homage to the great Queen for 
her kindly interest in his person, declined to change 
his religion, and preferred to remain a Protestant, 
for the preservation of which faith his ancestors had 
fought so loyally. He was created a Count by 
Maria Theresia, who at the same time conferred 



a similar dignity upon all the members of the 
family, both male and female. 

He died at Vienna on January 10th, 1768. His 
remains were removed to Kolozsvar, where on 
July 10th they were laid to final rest in the Great 
Reformed Church of that town. 

Lajos RhAdey II. 

Lajos II., who belonged to the Hungarian 
branch of the family, came specially to the fore in 
the seventeenth century, and his activity extended 
to the Napoleonic period. Like all the Rhedeys, he 
was destined for a military career, and became a great 
favourite with the Emperor Francis I., and at the 
time of the coronation of that monarch as King of 
Hungary he received the highest military distinction 
that it was in the power of his Sovereign to bestow. 
In 1808 the Emperor Francis I. appointed him 
Royal Chamberlain, and created him a Count of the 
Realm, and at the same time nominated him to the 
post of Lord Lieutenant and Administrator of the 
county of Bihar, which, during the Napoleonic war, 
was one of the most important posts in the land. 
When the members of the royal family had pre- 
cipitately to leave Vienna, the Archduchess Maria 
Beatrice took refuge with him at Nagy Varad. 
Count Lajos, during this troublesome period, raised 
a regiment at his own expense, the colours of which 
were embroidered and presented to the regiment 
by the Archduchess. 



(Brother of Her Majesty's Great-Grandfather) 

Reproduced from a painting, by special permission of the Baroness de Horvdth, 
nee Countess de lihedey 


During the time he held the post of Lord Lieu- 
tenant in Nagy Varad he endeared himself to the 
people by his wise and just rule, and, above all, for 
his noble heart. He made many munificent gifts 
to the town, amongst these the magnificent park, 
and several properties outside the city walls. He 
was also one of the founders of the theatre at Nagy 
Varad. Upon his retirement in 1819, when he went 
to live in his country estates, he presented his 
residence to the town in the same manner. This is 
now used as the headquarters of the Military Com- 
mandant of the 17th Regiment. He also made large 
gifts to the National Hungarian Museum and the 
Vienna Military Academy. 

He was a highly-cultured man and a great patron 
of art and science, and Michael Csokonai, who was 
the greatest poet of the day, mainly owes his fame to 
the patronage of Count Lajos Rhedey. So grateful 
was Csokonai to the family that at the time of the 
death of Countess Rhedey, the poet, who was lying 
ill in bed, journeyed speedily from Debreczen to 
Nagy Varad to be present at her interment, and 
recited an ode which he had written for the occasion. 
Count Lajos Rhedey, besides being a great 
patron of art, published himself also a variety of 
books and poems. One of his poems, written in 
honour of the birthday of the Archduke Joseph, 
Palatine of Hungary, was set to the music of Mozart, 
and performed with great success at Nagy Varad in 
the year 1799. He died at Budapest at the age of 
seventy-one, on May 27th, 1831. Of this branch 
of the Rhedey family there is only one living 



male descendant, 1st van de Rhedey, who lives 
at Apa. 

By the courtesy of M. Charles Rimler, Burgo- 
master of Nagy Varad, we are able to present several 
illustrations, especially taken for this work at the 
desire of the Municipal Council of Nagy Varad, in 
connection with this distinguished member of the 
Rhedey family. 

Count Adam Rhedey III. 

Coming back to the Transylvanian branch of the 
family, next in prominence was Count Adam 
Rhedey III. He held for many years the position 
of Lord Lieutenant of Transylvania. In 1830 he 
became Lord of the Treasury. He was immensely 
rich and used his wealth for the benefit of mankind. 
Many are the stories which are told about him in 
connection with his fabulous fortune. 

One day, it is related, he arrived in Debreczen 
just at the time of the holding of the fair which was 
so famous, being second in importance to that of 
Nijni Novgorod. Adam Rhedey tried in vain to find 
accommodation for himself and his numerous suite, 
for all the hotels and private houses were packed with 

In his search for lodgings he noticed an imposing 
house which had a board outside stating that it was 
to be sold. Adam Rhedey entered the house and 
enquired if he could have lodgings for himself and 
his suite. The landlord demurred, and said that he 
expected other guests. 



(Nee Josefa, Baroness Ba'nffy, Sister- est- Law of Her Majesty's 


From a portrait, by kind permission of Baroness Odon de Horvdth 


Rhedey then said to him, " I see your house is to 
be sold. What is the price of it ? " The owner men- 
tioned the figure, which was a considerable sum, 
whereupon Rhedey took out his purse and paid him 
the amount at once, with the characteristic remark, 
" Though you did not like me to be your guest, I 
have great pleasure in inviting you and your family 
to remain here as my guests." 

In 1848, during the Hungarian War of Inde- 
pendence, he gave the national cause a hundred- 
weight of silver coins. Adam III. made many 
generous gifts to the town of Nagy Varad, to which 
reference will be made later. 

He died in the year 1849, and was buried at 
Kolozsvar on January 29th. His wife, nee Teleki, 
had great literary abilities, and translated into Hun- 
garian fourteen sermons of Hugo Blair, published in 
1827 at Kolozsvar, with a preface by her husband. 

Several members of the Rhedey family were 
actively interested in the War of Independence of 
1848, and it was at the residence of the Countess 
Sophie Rhedey at Budapest that the leaders of the 
national rising, Kossuth, Batthanyi, and Deak, used 
to hold their meetings prior to the outbreak of the 
War of Independence. 

Adam Rhedey had no male issue, and he left his 
enormous wealth to his daughters, Klara (who was 
married to Baron Istvan Radak) and Maria, who 
became the wife of Count Imre Miko, and, through 
this latter marriage, the Rhedey family became 
connected with the great Pejacsevich family, which 
has supplied several Bans or Viceroys to Croatia. 



Laszl6 Rhedey XIII. (f 1835) 

As the grandfather of the late Duke of Teck, 
Laszlo XIII. , son of Mihaly IV. and nephew of 
Janos VII., previously referred to, claims our 
special attention. Laszlo XIII. did not hold any 
official appointments. He resided partly at Koloz- 
svar and Vienna, but principally on his estate at 
Erdo Szent Gyorgy, where he had a splendid castle 
surrounded by a very extensive park and ornamental 
gardens. Near his castle at Kolozsvar stood a won- 
derful structure, the so-called Suspension House, 
owing to its base having been erected on columns. 
This house, which contained a huge ball-room, he 
had transformed into a theatre and presented to the 
town of Kolozsvar. It was here that was founded 
the National Theatre of Kolozsvar, which in course 
of time became so famous, and now occupies a 
palatial building. 

Count Laszlo Rhedey was a very elegant and 
handsome man, and inherited all the great qualities 
which characterise the members of this family from 
its earliest days. He was married to the Baroness 
Inczedi, of a noble Transylvanian stock, by whom 
he had one child, the beautiful Countess Claudia. 
She was universally admired, not only on account 
of her looks and perfect grace and accomplish- 
ments, but also for her noble heart and kind- 
ness to those who were beneath her rank, and 
to those who needed help. It is no wonder, there- 
fore, that she became a popular figure in Society, 



and in the Court circles, where she proved to be the 
central figure of admiration. 

It was at one of the Court balls at Vienna that 
Prince Alexander of Wurtemberg, a young, hand- 
some, and dashing cavalry officer in the Austro- 
Hungarian army, first saw the enchanting Countess 
and fell desperately in love with her. Soon after- 
wards he asked her to become his wife, and by 
their marriage, which was solemnised in 1835, the 
Rhedey family became nearly related to the Royal 
House of Wurtemberg. 

Prince Alexander of Wurtemberg took up his 
residence at Gratz, where his regiment was stationed, 
and both he and his beautiful wife became most 
popular with all classes, and their house became the 
rendezvous of the elite of Society. 

At times they would visit Hungary, and on such 
occasions all the Hungarian and Transylvanian 
aristocracy gathered round them. Their married 
life, however, which was a most happy one, was 
of short duration, for five years after their marriage, 
on October 1st, 1841, the beautiful wife of Prince 
Alexander was thrown from her horse during the 
manoeuvres, and was killed on the spot. She was 
buried in the family vault at Erdo Szent Gyorgy 
in Transylvania.* There were three children by 
this marriage — one son, Francis, who was born at 
Vienna on August 27th, 1837, and was created 
Prince of Teck by the King of Wurtemberg in 1863, 

* A further description of Erdo Szent Gyorgy will be given 
in a later part of this volume. 



and two daughters, Claudia and Amalia, both of 
whom bore the title of Countess of Hohenstein. 

After the marriage of the Prince of Teek to 
Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge, the King of 
Wurtemberg conferred upon him the title of " Dulce" 

It is needless to describe here further the life of 
the late Duke of Teck, which belongs to modern 
times. We all know how much he endeared himself 
to the heart of the English people, who hold his 
memory in the same reverence as that of his beloved 
Duchess, the Princess Mary Adelaide, the mother 
of Her Majesty Queen Mary. 

Amongst the relations who survived Laszlo XIII. , 
of whom special mention should be made as they 
proved the last descendants of this House, were his 
nephew Count Janos Rhedey X. and Count Gabor 
Rhedey. Count Janos X., who was born in 1798, 
married in 1836 Baroness Kata Wesselenyi. As an 
Imperial and Royal Chamberlain he was a most 
popular figure in Kolozsvar, where he was generally 
known by his nickname of " Hanzi." He was very 
wealthy, and used his fortune for the welfare of his 
country. He contributed a very large sum for the 
restoration of the Protestant church at Kolozsvar. 
He had two daughters, to whom we often have 
occasion to refer, the elder of whom, Stephanie, 
became Baroness Istvan Wesselenyi ; the second 
daughter, Johanna, married Baron Odon de Horvath, 
whose mother was a Baroness Inczedi, a sister to 
Countess Laszlo Rhedey XIII., and an aunt to 
the late Duke's mother. He died in 1872, and with 
his death and that of his cousin, Count Gabor, which 



AUD1NE countess RHEDEY 


LflhU 107J 

JUJ Ui\i 

7fc :o: 



Published with Her Majesty's gracious permission 


occurred in 1897, the last male representatives of this 
ancient House passed away. Thus the great star of 
the House of Aba, which had risen in Central Asia and 
had shone forth with such glory and brilliance for a 
thousand years, vanished from the horizon never to 
appear again. 

Its great splendour during its long existence of so 
many centuries and the glory of its career will ever 
be remembered in the Crown lands of St. Stephen, in 
the history in which it played so prominent a part. 

* # * 

Of the female members of the Rhedey family 

still living are the daughters of Count Janos 
Rhedey X., Baroness Istvan de Wesselenyi, and 
Baroness Odon de Horvath, previously referred to. 
To the kind courtesy of the latter I am indebted 
for a number of interesting family portraits, which 
I have the privilege of reproducing in this volume. 

The Baroness de Horvath has two daughters, the 
eldest of whom is married to Count Ferdinand Vetter 
von der Lilie, an officer in the Austro-Hungarian 
army. The second daughter is the wife of Count 
Charles Attems. 

Like their mother, both ladies are highly esteemed 
and most popular with those whom they come in 
contact with. 

Another female surviving member of the family is 
Madame BeladeFrater, whose father, Count Istvan IX., 
was a cousin to Her Majesty's grandmother. Her 
son is one of the most talented politicians and writers 
in Hungary. In one of his recent articles which ap- 
peared in a leading Hungarian paper, he) gives a most 
interesting account of the stormy period of 1848. 

97 h 


The House of Bathory. 

Next to claim our attention are the Houses of 
Bathory, Bethlen, and Apaffy, who, like the Rhedeys, 
descend from the same stock. 

There were two great families in Hungary called 
Bathory — the Bathorys of Gagi and the Bathorys 
of Gutkeld. The former, like the Rhedeys, were 
the descendants of the House of Aba, whilst the latter 
became related to that house by frequent inter- 

The Bathorys of Gagi had their family seat in 
their native county of Aba uj Torna, in the villages 
of Szemere. 

A number of distinguished personages sprang 
from this house, and played an important part in 
the history of the country for several centuries. 

One of the Bathorys was a great friend and kins- 
man of the famous hero, John Hunyady, and fell in 
the battle of Varna (1444). He fought by the side 
of Hunyady, and bequeathed him his sword, and 
his last word to his comrade was, " Take this sword 
as the only one worthy to bear it, and remember the 
dying wishes of your friend, whose one desire in the 
world was to see his country free from the infidel 
enemy." It is said that it was this sword that 



led Hunyady to the many victories by which he 
became immortal, and it was also with this sword 
that Hunyady' s son, the great King Matthias 
Corvinus, defeated the Emperor Frederick III., and 
drove him out of his Austrian dominions. 

But the most noted member of the family was 
Miklos Bathory, who lived in the early part of the 
sixteenth century. In the great contest between 
Ferdinand I. of Austria and Szapolyai for the crown 
of Hungary, he sided with the latter, and fell in his 
defence at the battle of Tokaj. His son, who was 
equally held in high esteem and owned the great 
fortress of Fiilek, died there towards the middle 
of the sixteenth century, and with him this ancient 
house, which had done so much to maintain the 
native dynasty on the throne of Hungary, became 

The family possessions then became divided 
amongst the various members of the House of Aba, 
and Szemere itself became the property of the family 
of the same name. 

The Bathorys of Gutkeld had already played a 
prominent part in Hungary in the eleventh century, 
when one of their ancestors, Apos, aided greatly 
King Salamon and Geza in their wars against 
Wratislaw, King of Bohemia, and as a reward for 
their services received grants of land in various parts 
of Hungary. 

When King Charles Robert of Anjou came 
to the throne he granted to the family the vast 
estates of Ecsed, which extended into several 

99 h 2 


By this and other grants they became, in course 
of time, the richest feudal lords in Hungary. 

Next in importance comes Andreas Bathory, 
who in 1498 built the famous family castle of Ecsed, 
which for centuries proved a formidable rival of the 
palace of the King itself, and indeed excelled it in 
splendour in many ways. His son, Istvan III, 
became Palatine of Hungary. 

One of the Bathorys built the great monastery 
of Nyir Bator. Historians record of him that he 
could neither read nor write, although he was 
endowed with great intelligence and occupied many 
high public appointments. 

Another member of the family, Andreas Bathory, 
in the year 1524, held the important post of Ban of 
Belgrade at the critical moment when the Turks 
were frequently knocking at the gates of Hungary, 
and Belgrade was the key to that country. He also 
took part in the battle of Mohacs in 1526 against 
the Turks, which proved so disastrous to the Hun- 
garians, and was principally the means of raising 
Ferdinand I. of Habsburg to the throne of Hungary. 

His brother Miklos III., on the other hand, was 
at first an adherent of Szapolyai, the rival King to 
Ferdinand, but later he deserted his cause and 
became a partisan of Ferdinand I. 



Istvan (Stephen) Bathory, King of Poland 

But it was Istvan Bathory who was the pride of 
the family, and who established its fame and great- 
ness for all time. Born in 1533, and of a race who 
were the main pillars of Hungary during the Habs- 
burg rule just inaugurated by Ferdinand I., but 
very feebly established, young Bathory was brought 
up at the Court of Ferdinand I. at Vienna, and was 
imbued with ideas of imperialism, but as he grew up 
he deserted that cause and associated himself with 
Szapolyai, who appointed him Waiwode of Tran- 

After the death of Szapolyai he was sent to 
Vienna as a special ambassador to represent the 
interest of Zigismond, the infant son of Szapolyai, 
who was elected King of Hungary by a large party, in 
spite of a special treaty which was concluded between 
Szapolyai and Ferdinand I., by virtue of which after 
the death of the former the kingdom of Hungary 
should revert to the latter. Stephen Bathory, having 
been declared a rebel, was captured and kept in prison 
for two years. At the death of the young King 
Zigismond, Stephen Bathory was elected Prince of 
Transylvania in spite of the strong protest of the 
Vienna Court. 

The throne of Poland having become vacant in 
1575 by the death of Augustus Sigismond, the last 
male representative of the House of Jagellon, 
several candidates came forward, each of whom 



had his adherents. One party elected Henry 
of Anjou, the son of Catherine de Medici, but 
who, upon the death of his brother Charles IX., 
precipitately left the country in order to ascend 
the throne of France. The Archduke Maximilian, 
afterwards Emperor, had also his supporters, and 
it was intended that he should marry Princess Anna, 
the daughter of the late Polish King, but she refused 
his suit, and became betrothed to Stephen Bathory, 
who thereupon was elected King of Poland. 

Having abdicated the throne of Transylvania 
in favour of his brother Christopher, he proceeded 
to Cracow, where he was anointed King. 

Stephen Bathory proved to be one of the greatest 
sovereigns that ever sat on the throne of Poland ; 
in fact, next to Boleslaw I., he may be claimed as 
the greatest Polish king. He entirely reorganised 
the country, which at the time of his accession was 
in a demoralised state, and in order to protect the 
country from the outside enemy, he founded the 
famous Polish Cossack Regiment. He established 
the University of Vilna, and encouraged learning. 
Stephen Bathory defeated Czar Ivan, challenging 
him to personal combat, which the latter refused, 
whereupon he proclaimed him a coward. So much 
was he loved by his Polish subjects that they 
declared that his death meant the death of the 
Polish nation. 

Not having had any issue, it was his secret aim 
that his nephew Zigismond, who now occupied the 
throne of Transylvania, should succeed him and 
unite under one sceptre the kingdoms of Hungary 



From a Painting, Published by Special Permission op his Daughter, 

Baroness Odon de Horvath, nee Countess de Rhedey 


and Poland, and his ambition in this respect might 
have been realised had it not been for the fact that 
Zigismond Bathory' s rule was not of a nature to 
inspire either the Hungarians or the Poles to elect 
him as king, for though to him was due the credit 
of having inflicted a great defeat upon the Turks, 
commanded by the Grand Vizier himself, and of 
having conquered Moldavia, yet his tyrannical rule 
and his foreign tendencies made his people detest 
him to such an extent that he saw the necessity of 
abdicating, and arranged to hand over the Princi- 
pality to Germany in exchange for the Duchy of 
Oppeln. He, however, soon regretted the bargain, 
for in 1600 he invaded the country at the head of a 
Polish army, with a view of regaining possession of 
the Principality, but this time he was defeated, and 
was compelled to abdicate in favour of his nephew, 
Andreas Bathory. 

Andreas Bathory was brought up at the Court 
of Poland. In his early days he joined the priesthood 
and was nominated Bishop in Poland. Through the 
influence of his uncle, Stephen Bathory, he was 
created Cardinal; Pope Clement VIII. nominated 
him Papal Legate and sent him on different missions. 

At the time of his election he was in Poland, and 
he immediately left the country to assume the rule 
of the Principality, where, upon his arrival, he found 
his rights contested by a large party who favoured 
the election of Waiwode Michael. This led to a civil 
war, and in the end the Cardinal Prince was slain in 
a fierce battle fought at Csik-Szent-Domokos. 

Pope Clement VIII. was so much angered by the 



death of his favourite Cardinal that he placed Csik- 
Szent-Domokos under the ban of the Church, and it 
is noteworthy that no steps were ever taken to 
release it from this ban. Whether this is due to the 
fact that the people have since joined the Protestant 
faith or for any other reason, I cannot say, but the 
fact remains that Csik-Szent-Domokos has now been 
under the ban of the Church for over three hundred 

The Last of the Bathorys 

The last descendant of this mighty Hungarian 
noble house, which for so many centuries played 
such an important part in the history of the country, 
and has placed upon the throne of Hungary more 
than one king, or removed them therefrom at its 
will and pleasure, was Gabriel Bathory. 

Gabriel Bathory, at the time of his succession to 
the throne of Transylvania, was twenty-seven years 
of age and still single. He was exceedingly handsome 
and of manly bearing, proud, dignified, highly 
polished, and cultivated, and yet with it all he had 
the ways and mannerisms which captivated both 
men and women alike. His sumptuous Court at 
Fehervar, which rivalled European Courts in ele- 
gance and splendour, and the fair ladies belonging 
to the noblesse of Transylvania, always reputed for 
their good looks and excellent horsemanship, were 
to be met there in great numbers. 

Exceedingly romantic by nature and fond of 
adventure of all kinds, Gabriel was anxious to conceal 
his identity from the general public, and for this 



purpose he assumed the name of Ecsed, and made one 
of his favourite councillors pose as Prince of Tran- 

It only having been known to a privileged few 
that Ecsed was no other than the Prince, Gabriel 
Bathory could move freely amongst his subjects, and 
many of the fair maidens of Transylvania lost 
their heart to Ecsed, the handsome and gallant 
companion of the Prince, whom he was generally 
taken to be. 

Gabriel Bathory, however, was not content with 
the flirtations he carried on outside the castle walls, 
for he made desperate love to the ladies of the Court, 
and the beautiful Agnes Kornis was a special object 
of his affection. But this noble-minded woman was 
as virtuous as she was beautiful, and loved her 
husband with all the passion of which a woman's 
heart is capable. She repulsed the persistent 
addresses of Gabriel Bathory, who went so far as to 
suggest that he would arrange the annulment of her 
marriage to Kornis and make her his Princess, and 
to avoid his addresses she henceforth absented 
herself from all Court functions. 

Now the Kornis family, as we shall have occasion 
to point out in another part of this volume, belonged 
to the oldest and proudest of Hungarian noble 
families, and claimed descent from a certain French 
marquis, named Guillaume Kornis, who settled in 
Hungary in the reign of King Samu Aba, and after 
the death of that monarch is supposed to have 
married his widow, Queen Charlotte. 

The family were also nearly related to the 



Rhedeys, Bethlens, and all the leading families of 
Hungary and Transylvania. 

Boldizsar Kornis himself, the husband of the- 
beautiful Agnes, was a man of special importance 
in his country, and it was mainly due to his influence 
and that of his kinsman, Gabor Bethlen, that Gabriel 
Bathory was elected to the throne of Transylvania, 
and for a long time he proved to be one of his 
staunchest supporters. 

Ignorant of the cause which made his wife adopt 
such an attitude towards the princely Court, he 
pressed her for an explanation in the matter, and 
Agnes had no alternative but to divulge to him her 
reasons, which, in order to spare the feelings of her 
husband, she had kept a secret from him. The proud 
Kornis, upon hearing this, became indignant and, 
with a drawn sword, made his way to the palace and 
into the presence of the Prince, demanding from him 
satisfaction for the insult offered to him and his wife. 

This having been refused by the haughty Prince, 
Boldiszar Kornis proclaimed him a coward, and 
placed himself at the head of a movement to dethrone 
Gabriel Bathory. The revolution failed, and Bol- 
diszar Kornis was captured and executed. 

This and other acts of tyranny on the part of 
Gabriel Bathory led to a series of revolts, and finally, 
in the year 1613, Gabor Bethlen, who was destined 
to become so famous in the history of Hungary, 
raised an army against him and expelled him from 
Transylvania. Bathory took refuge in his Hun- 
garian dominions, and negotiated with the German 
Emperor for his co-operation in order to reconquer 



Transylvania, but he was assassinated at Nagy 
Varad by some of his former adherents, who wished 
to avenge the death of Boldiszar Kornis. 

With the death of Gabriel the mighty and 
princely House of Bathory became extinct. 

The beautiful Agnes Kornis, after the sad death of 
her husband, entered a convent, where ten years 
later she died. 

Szofia (Sophia) Bathory 

Amongst the female members of the Bathory 
family, Sophia Bathory made herself notorious by 
her persecution of the Protestants. This lady was 
married to George Rakoczy II. in 1643, five years 
before his accession to the throne of Transylvania. 

One of the marriage stipulations was that she 
was to become a Protestant, which faith she embraced 
in due course, but after the death of her husband 
she not only rejoined her former faith, but she also 
caused the conversion of her son, Francis Rakoczy II., 
to the Catholic religion. She was entirely in the 
power of the priests, and settled upon the Jesuit 
order the revenues of a number of her vast estates, 
and built a Jesuit church at Kassa. 

She compelled her feudal tenants to join the 
Catholic faith, persecuted those who declined to 
change their religion, and dispersed their priests. 

Her hatred for the Protestants was so intense 
that she was more than once referred to as " the 
Catherine de Medici of Hungary." 

She wrote a new version of the Bible, which was 



published in the early part of the eighteenth century. 
Her wealth was unbounded, and her vast estates 
yielded a royal revenue. 

Another member of the family, Anna Bathory, 
became notorious by her being accused of witch- 
craft. She, however, was set free by the intervention 
of Ferencz Rhedey II., who pleaded her cause before 
the Prince of Transylvania, and out of gratitude she 
settled upon him a large estate and the entire village 
of Thoti. 

Elisabeth Bathory was even more notorious. 
She was handsome but extremely vain, and jealous 
to a degree ; and desirous of being the only good- 
looking woman of the district, she allured to her 
castle all the prettiest maidens of the neighbourhood, 
and had them stifled. When the horrible crime was 
discovered, she defended herself in her castle at 
Cetnje for a considerable time, and only surrendered 
by a clever strategy on the part of the besiegers, 
amongst whom was the Palatin Thurzo himself. The 
culprit, however, remained unpunished, as she was 
declared insane. 



The Bethlen Family 

The Bethlen family may justly be proud of 
belonging to an ancient stock, whose members 
throughout many centuries have distinguished them- 
selves in the field of battle, and for having had as 
one of their ancestors Gabriel Bethlen, the greatest 
prince that ever sat on the throne of Transylvania, a 
champion of freedom, and one of the most chivalrous 
princes of his time. 

The family can also boast of having amongst its 
members a long array of both men and women who, 
from the earliest ages, have devoted themselves to 
science and art, using the knowledge thus gained 
for the good of their native country, which even in 
the Middle Ages was regarded as one of the most 
cultured States in Europe. 

The principal seat of the Bethlen family is 
situated in their cradle home, Bethlen, where they 
have a magnificent castle surrounded by an exten- 
sive park. There is also a very interesting family 
museum on the estate, and the studs of Count Sandor 
Bethlen are famous. 

The founders of this ancient family, who branched 
off from the House of Aba in the thirteenth century, 
made themselves prominent in the reign of King 
Bela III. One of the family was the Waiwode of 



Transylvania in the reign of King Ladislaus V. of 

The pride of the family, however, as already 
stated, was Gabriel Bethlen. 

Gabor (Gabriel) Bethlen (1580-1629) 

Gabriel Bethlen was one of the greatest and most 
prominent figures of the seventeenth century. 

When he was a youth of sixteen he joined the 
service of Zigismond Bathory, and at the age of 
twenty led the forces of the Principality against the 
rebel Waiwode. 

Upon the abdication of Zigismond Bathory he 
became an adherent of Bocskay and defeated Mozes 
Szekely, the rival claimant of Bocskay, whereupon the 
latter was elected prince. After the death of Bocksay, 
Gabriel Bathory was, at the suggestion of Bethlen, 
elevated to the throne, but having been badly treated 
by this tyrant prince, and seeing that his life, like 
that of his friend Boldizsar Kornis, was in danger, he 
escaped to Turkey, whence, in the year 1613, he 
returned with a large army and defeated Gabriel 
Bathory, who, as already mentioned, had to take 
refuge in Hungary, at Nagy Varad, where he was 

Gabriel Bethlen, who succeeded him, though an 
opponent of his, was so horrified at this deed that 
his first act was to order the execution of his assassins. 
At the very outset of his rule, Gabriel Bethlen became 
involved in trouble with the German Emperor, who did 
not approve of his election, owing to his well-known 
animosity towards the German Imperial House, but 



(Nephew op Count Laszlo Rhedey) 

Reproduced from a painting, by kind permission of Baroness Odon de Horvdth, 
nee Countess de Rhedey 


as the Sultan insisted upon maintaining him upon 
the throne, the Emperor Matthias II. in the end had 
no alternative but to recognise him as prince, which 
he did in the year 1615, two years after his election. 

From his accession till the end of his life, Gabriel 
Bethlen devoted himself to the good of his country 
and the cause of mankind. 

The Thirty Years' War, which had broken out 
at the commencement of his reign, gave him an 
opportunity to realise his life's ambition and draw 
his sword in defence of the Protestant faith. The 
Emperor was engaged in quelling the revolt which 
had just broken out in Bohemia, which had for its 
aim the expulsion of the Habsburg dynasty, and the 
placing upon the throne the Elector Frederick of the 
Palatinate, brother-in-law of James I. of England, 
through whom, as is known, the House of Stuart 
succeeded to the throne of England. Bethlen was a 
friend and ally of the Elector, and in order to keep 
the Emperor's forces engaged, he invaded Hungary 
and defeated the German army, and made himself 
master of the whole of Upper Hungary, Pozsony 
itself, the then capital of Hungary, being captured 
by him, and he obtained possession of the sacred 
crown of St. Stephen. 

The Emperor thereupon sued for peace, but as 
Bethlen made it a part of the conditions that he 
should agree to the separation of Bohemia from 
Hungary, and the recognition of Frederick as king, 
nothing came of these negotiations, and Bethlen 
was, in the year 1622, at a special parliament con- 
vened by his adherents at Beszterczbanya, elected 
King of Hungary. 



This naturally led to a renewal of hostilities 
between him and the German Emperor, and though 
victory was on the side of Bethlen, matters 
suddenly took a fresh turn by the defeat of the 
Bohemians in the White Mountains, and the expul- 
sion of the Elector Frederick from Bohemia. 

In the presence of this victory by the Emperor, 
Bethlen did not consider it wise to continue the war, 
and readily availed himself of the offer to conclude 
peace with the Emperor. By the terms of this 
treaty Bethlen surrendered all the forts he had 
taken in Hungary, and returned the crown, which 
was still in his possession, stipulating, however, 
that the Emperor was to convene the Hungarian 
Parliament within six months, to enable it to 
discuss the remedies whereby the Constitution of 
the country and the rights of the Protestants 
should be safeguarded for the future ; and this was 
agreed to. 

Though peace was concluded at the time, Bethlen 
more than once had occasion to fight as the ally of 
Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden against the Emperor, 
in the long series of battles during the Thirty Years' 
War, and was the means of compelling the Emperor 
to guarantee the rights of the Protestants by the 
treaties of Vienna in 1623, and of Pozsony in 1626. 

Though, like Cromwell, Bethlen was an ardent 
Protestant, he never persecuted any other religion, 
and so generous was his conduct in this respect that 
though he despised the Jesuits, nevertheless there 
were several instances when he actually helped the 
Jesuit priests with funds so as to enable them to 
print new versions of the Bible. 



He was a highly cultured man, and wrote several 
important works and many psalms, some of which 
are still sung. It is known of him that he read the 
Bible through twenty-six times, and knew it by 
heart. He founded the great Protestant College of 
Nagy Enyed, which is still the largest college belong- 
ing to that faith in Transylvania. 

After the death of his first wife, one of the 
Karolyis, also a connection of the Rhedeys, Bethlen 
was married to Princess Catherine, daughter of the 
Elector of Brandenburg. He was a handsome and 
fine man, of splendid vigour and bearing. He was 
of great taste and elegance, and his Court was 
reputed for its splendour. 

Two of Bethlen' s most constant aims were the 
banishment of the Jesuits from Transylvania, and 
the securing of the rights of the Protestants in 
Hungary and Transylvania. 

The part which Bethlen took in the Thirty 
Years' War gave a European importance to Tran- 
sylvania, such as it never before nor since that time 
has enjoyed. For many years Bethlen's favourite 
project was the restoration of the kingdom of Dacia, 
the present Transylvania, which formerly extended 
as far as Hungary, east of the River Tisza. 

The greatness of his designs, the fertility of his 
resources, his diplomatic skill, and the noble principle 
of religious liberty for which he so bravely fought, 
commanded for him the universal respect and 
admiration of the entire civilised world. A number 
of monuments throughout the country perpetuate 
his memory. 

113 i 


Bethlen was succeeded on the throne by his wife, 
Catherine of Brandenburg, and after her forced 
abdication, owing to her friendly tendencies towards 
the German Empire, his brother, Stephen Bethlen, 
was elected in her stead, but he, too, soon abdicated 
in favour of George Rakoczy I. 

A long line of ancestors follow, who distinguished 
themselves in many ways as administrators of 
Transylvania, and as scholars. Of these Farkas 
Bethlen (1639-1679) immortalised himself as a 
famous historian and great diplomatist. 

He left a large number of works unpublished, 
and so numerous were these that after his death 
his brother Elek established a printing press entirely 
for the purpose of having them produced. 

Mikl6s Bethlen (1640-1716) 

Next to Gabriel Bethlen, Miklos Bethlen certainly 
deserves to be classed amongst the most distinguished 
ancestors of this illustrious house, and his name will 
ever be associated with the famous Diploma Leopold- 

He was sent by Apaffy on various political 
missions to the different Courts of Europe, including 
those of England and France, where his charming 
personality and great intellect made him most 
popular with all those with whom he came in contact. 

Returning home, he entered the army, and soon 
rose to the position of Commander-in-Chief. 

He subsequently took part in the Thokoli rising 
in 1681, and held many high appointments during 


(Nee Baroness Katinka de Horvath) 


his regime. When, after the defeat of the Turks in 
Hungary, Transylvania was compelled to recognise 
the supremacy of the German Emperor, he did 
everything in his power to induce the Emperor 
Leopold to respect the Constitution of the Princi- 
pality, which led to his granting the famous charter 
of Transylvania above referred to. 

Though in many respects this Diploma curtailed 
the former rights and privileges of the Principality 
during its independence, the country still retained 
a certain number of constitutional rights such as 
were enjoyed by no other Western power during 
that period. 

As an ardent Protestant, Miklos Bethlen often 
came in conflict with George Banffy, the Governor- 
General of the country, owing to the latter, who at 
one time was a very devout Protestant, having 
embraced the Catholic faith. Though Miklos 
Bethlen was held in very high esteem by the 
Emperor, who created him a Count of the Empire, 
nevertheless, when he saw that the country was 
unjustly deprived of its rights, he devised a plan in 
1704 for its deliverance from the German rule. 

The plan was discovered and Bethlen was thrust 
into prison, and though the Emperor pardoned him ? 
he left his native country never to behold it again. 

His patriotic spirit, the numerous literary works 
which he published, and the many foundations which 
he made will keep alive his memory in Hungary for 
ever as one of its greatest sons and a worthy 
descendant of the Royal House of Aba. 

It would be impossible in the limited space at 

115 i 2 


the disposal of the author to do justice to all the 
ancestors of this noble house, who established their 
name with so much glory in the annals of their 
country, though reference should be made here to 
Ilona Bethlen, daughter of Gergely Bethlen, who 
became the wife of Apaffy II. , the last prince to sit 
upon the throne of Transylvania. 

The romance which led to her marriage to Apaffy 
is graphically depicted by that immortal writer of 
Hungary, Maurice Jokai, and is given in the following 

Right through the eighteenth and nineteenth 
centuries the family have furnished an unusually 
long list of eminent persons ; and, indeed, almost 
every one of these, both men and women, have con- 
tributed to the fame and glory of the family name. 
They all seem to have had a special aptitude for 
literature and science. 

Amongst these were Count Janos Bethlen, who 
established the National Theatre and the National 
Museum of Transylvania, and founded many religious 

In the nineteenth century Count Farkas Bethlen 
represented the Progressive Party in the stormy 
National Diet, which led to its eventual abolition. 
He was strongly against the ancient feudal rights, 
though he himself was a great landlord, and he 
advocated the union of Transylvania with Hungary. 

Finally, we come to Andreas Bethlen, who played 
an important part in the recent Parliamentary 
Administrations of Hungary. As a great authority 
on agriculture and a scholar of great eminence, he 



was induced to join the Cabinets of Count Szapary, 
and held the portfolio of the Minister of Agriculture 
in his administration and also that of his successor, 
Dr. Wekerle, in the year 1890. 

A Crown for Love * 

There was great excitement in the village of 
Majusfalva on a certain wintry Sunday. The parish 
church was crowded with worshippers coming from 
the adjoining villages in spite of the great snow- 
storm which had covered the entire expanse around 
with a pure white mantle. 

It was a special occasion, for it was the first time 
an organ, presented to the church by Bethlen, was 
to be heard by the simple village folk. 

After the service was over, Bethlen and his pretty 
daughter, accompanied by the parish priest, were 
making their way to the castle of Kukull(5, when 
suddenly a ferocious bear, breaking out of an 
adjacent forest, rushed upon the party, and flew 
towards Ilona. 

Bethlen threw himself in front of his child, and 
with marvellous alertness grappled with the savage 
beast until the priest and villagers came to his 
assistance, and in a few moments the bear was 
beaten to death. 

After this exciting event Bethlen, the priest, and 
his daughter returned home. 

* The above story of Ilona Bethlen, by Maurice Jokai, is so 
beautiful that, to do it justice, it should be produced in its 
entirety, but the author must content himself by giving a mere 



The incident was naturally made the occasion for 
great rejoicing at the castle of Kukiillo. 

The guests had departed, but Bethlen still held 
his daughter in his arms and caressed her with 
tender affection. 

Ilona, who had by this time recovered from the 
fright and shock she had undergone, now said blush- 
ingly, " How strange, father ! This is the second 
time I have been attacked by a bear ! " 

" The second time ! " exclaimed Bethlen, in tones 
of surprise. 

Ilona became confused, and seemed as though 
she regretted what had inadvertently escaped her, 
and she would not have replied had not her father 
pressed her for an answer. 

With a crimson face and drooping her eyes she 
said in low and subdued tones, " Last autumn, whilst 
staying with my aunt at Almakerek, I and my maid 
Magda were roaming in the woods and lost our way. 
The sun was setting and it was growing dusk, and 
we were still in the depths of the forest when the 
huntsman's horn fell upon our ears, and in a moment 
an infuriated bear, who was evidently being chased, 
flew straight towards us. Imagine our horror and 
despair ! But all at once, out of the depths of the 
wood, a young knight riding furiously appeared 
upon the scene, and before we had actually 
realised his presence he had stabbed the animal 
to death. 

* ' Dismounting his horse, he rushed towards us. By 
this time I was unconscious, so he carried me to the 
stream near by, and bathed my face with water to 





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Nee Baroness Jenka de Horvath 


revive me. I did not like to tell you this before, 
father ! " 

" Ah ! " said Bethlen. " Wait until I trust you 
out of my sight again ! And what, pray, became of 
the knight ? Tell me, was he a handsome young 
man ? " 

Ilona blushed more rosily still, and answered 
eagerly, " Oh, yes, father, he was ! His face and 
form showed him to be a man of noble birth, and his 
eyes were so bold and yet so tender ! " 

Bethlen exclaimed, " And you had time to notice 
all this ! " Then, drawing her gently towards him, 
he said, " Tell me more about it ! How did you 
manage to return home ? " 

Hona, in a stammering whisper, replied, " Of 
course I felt exhausted after such an exciting ex- 
perience and could not walk home, so the young 
knight placed me upon his horse, and walked by my 
side, but the road was rough, and I nearly slipped to 
the ground ! " 

" WeU, well ! " said her father. " Quick !— tell 
me what happened then ! " 

" Well," answered Ilona, blushing still more 
deeply, " there was no other way but for the knight 
to himself mount and place me before him in the 
saddle, where he held me safely." Saying this, she 
threw herself upon her father's breast, and hid her 
burning face from him. 

Bethlen broke out into a peal of jovial laughter. 

" Why, my child ! " he said, " you seem to have 
fallen desperately in love with this knight ! And 
what is his name, pray ? " 



" I do not know, father." 

" Impossible. Have you not asked him ? '' 

" No, father, I did not like to do so, but Magda got 
to know that he is attached to the Court of Prince 

fcC Ah ! if that is the case," said the father, " the 
matter is very simple. I shall soon get to know all 
about him. I'll ask the Prince himself." 

" I forgot to tell you, father, that he said he was 

" Ah ! what does that matter ? " was Bethlen's 
reply ; " the important question is if he is all right 
in other respects. If he is an Hungarian gentleman, 
and suitable to your rank, and if he cares for 
you ! " 

Ilona passionately embraced her father, thus 
betraying the state of her feelings, and saying 
" Good-night," she retired to her chamber. 


That same night in the dim mist two sledges 
are to be seen in the far distance following each 
other at a rapid pace in the direction of Kukullo 
Castle. As they near one another close under the 
castle, the occupant of the first, a young and hand- 
some knight enveloped in furs, shrouds his face so 
as to be unrecognisable, and he whispers to his 
companion, who to all appearances seems to be 
a confidential servant, " Janos, we had better turn 
quickly to the side gate, so that we shall not be 
noticed by the occupants of yonder sledge." 

" Yes, Your Highness," answered the man, " for 
I am sure that young Michael Banffy and Ladislaus 



Csaky are seated there, and they also are sure to be 
making for the castle." 

" So you don't think, Janos, that they recognised 

" Oh, I don't think so," was the answer. 

" Tell me, Janos, have you acquainted your 
daughter with the fact that I desire to see her lady 
to-night ? " 

" Yes, sire, but she had the greatest trouble to 
make her see you alone, and it was only after a great 
deal of persuasion that she consented to see you 
for a few moments in the northern wing of the 

They had barely arrived at the gates of the tower 
when the young knight impatiently jumped down, 
and bidding Janos to meet him there a little later 
on, he made his way towards the tower. 

A female servant was evidently in waiting for 
him, for immediately upon his arrival the gates 
opened to him, and he was told in a whispering voice 
by the maid that her mistress would see him, but 
only for one moment. He was conducted to the 
tower, and in a few minutes stood in the presence of 

A Prince's Love Rejected 

For days the loving pair had been thinking of 
all the sweet things they would say to one another 
when they met, but now they were face to face not 
a word passed the lips of either. At last Ilona 
broke the silence. 

" I am angry with you for coming to see me in 



this way ! Why do you not go and speak to my 
father, and ask his consent ? " 

" I would with all my heart, Ilona, but I am 
afraid he would not agree to our union." 

" You see," answered Ilona, with a roguish 
smile, " I am more courageous than you are ! You 
did not dare to ask my father for my hand, so I have 
done it for you myself ! " 

The knight became suddenly grave, and said, 
" Have you told him everything ? " 

" Yes ! I told him of our strange meeting. He 
guessed the rest. I also told him that you were 
poor, and he said that did not matter if everything 
was right in other respects ! " 

" I am afraid that you have divulged our secret 
too soon ! It might interfere with our plans. I fear 
you have made too sure of your father's consent, 
and perhaps, when he sees me, he may make some 
objections after all ! " 

" I don't think you need be afraid of that ! The 
word of a Bethlen is generally his bond, and their 
good heart is proverbial ! Father would be the last 
to interfere with our happiness." 

" I know that ! I am convinced of it. But there 
are certain circumstances of which you are not aware 
which may cause obstacles ! " 

At this very moment the door was thrown open 
with great force, and Bethlen, in a furious rage, stood 
facing them. He had been told by his visitors who 
had just arrived that someone had just got out of a 
sledge and had made his way to the north tower, 
where his daughter's apartments were situated, and, 



finding the stranger actually with her, he at once 
drew his sword, saying : 

" Wretched man ! I see you have a sword at your 
side ! Draw it quickly, or you will be cut in pieces 
before you have a chance to defend yourself." 

Ilona shrieked and threw herself upon her father's 
breast. The knight, who until now had turned his face 
away, now raised his head with an air of dignity and 
approached Bethlen, who, upon seeing him, became 
altogether changed. Anger and astonishment were 
portrayed upon his countenance, and, placing his 
sword in its sheath, he calmly turned to his daughter's 
maid and told her to conduct her mistress to her 
private apartments. 

Ilona became more alarmed at the stern gravity 
of his demeanour than she had been at the anger 
previously exhibited by her father. Throwing her- 
self on her knees before him, she said in trembling 
tones : 

" Did you not tell me that you would not be 
angry if my choice fell on a worthy knight, no matter 
how poor he might be ? " 

" Poor ! " answered Bethlen with sarcasm. " He 
is only the possessor of our little country, Transyl- 
vania. It is His Highness, Prince Michael Apaffy ! " 

" Yes ! It is I ! " answered Apaffy, advancing. 
" And if you will give me your consent I will be your 
son-in-law, and I promise to make your daughter 
the happiest woman in Transylvania." 

" Oh, father ! " said Ilona, blushing and kissing 
his hand. 

" You had better retire at once to your room," 



said Bethlen, in a severe tone. " It is not you whom 
I have to consider, but the welfare of Transylvania." 
Saying this, and tenderly kissing his daughter, he led 
her out of the room and returned to the Prince. 

" Your Highness," said he in a tone of respect, 
" I should like to say much to you, were it not an 
impertinence to hurt the feelings of a guest, although 
that guest did not do me the honour to enter my 
castle by the usual gate ; but this I do desire to say : 
I would rather you had allowed my daughter to be 
torn to pieces by the wild bear than that I should 
see her happiness destroyed by you. You can take 
it on my solemn oath, never will Your Highness be 
her husband." 

" And what is your objection ? " 

" What is my objection, Your Highness ? You 
know very well that the retention of your throne 
depends upon your alliance. In a few months' time 
your minority will expire, and by that time the 
Princess Marie of Brandenburg, who has been 
destined for your bride, will also be of marriageable 
age. I cannot answer for your happiness, but this 
much is certain, that by this alliance you will be 
enabled to remain upon your throne. On the other 
hand, should you marry the daughter of a man of 
my rank, you may take it for granted that you will 
be unable to preserve your crown." 

" What does it matter to me ? " replied the 

" It matters to me and it matters to the country," 
answered Bethlen. 

" You and I are only two men ; we can live as it 



pleases the Almighty. But the future of Tran- 
sylvania is at stake here, and I will not allow any 
love affair between you and my child to stand in the 
way of the country's independence. Depart from 
here now with the blessing of God, and fulfil the 
holy mission which the electors of the country have 
entrusted to you. It is true you have broken my 
daughter's heart and my own, but the fate of Tran- 
sylvania comes before everything." Saying this, he 
turned with a sad demeanour towards the young 
Prince, who had listened to him downcast and speech- 
less as he said : 

" One word more, Your Highness ; pray remember 
all that I have said is irrevocable. Therefore, if you 
really and truly love my daughter, you will, I am 
sure, consider it a chivalrous duty to approach her 
no more." 

The Prince took his departure in sad silence, his 
only farewell to Bethlen being a long and heavy sigh. 

Bethlen returned to his guests, who were merrily 
feasting, and said jovially, " Friends Banff y and 
Csaky, the cold weather must have affected your 
sight, for I have seen no stranger in the north tower, 
where the apartments of my daughter are situated." 
And with this he pretended to join in the hilarity of 
the feast. Yet at that moment no man throughout 
the breadth of Transylvania felt so sad at heart as he. 

Love Rewarded 

From that evening Ilona remained inconsolable, 
and shut herself up in her own apartments. On 



reflection, Bethlen thought it wise to acquaint his 
family of what had occurred, and how he had refused 
to encourage Prince Apaffy's suit, and, as he could not 
be induced to change his mind, the family council 
agreed that the wisest course to pursue in order to 
prevent the young and loving couple from meeting 
was to take Ilona away for some time from Tran- 
sylvania, and place her in charge of relations at 
Nagy Varad. The necessary arrangements were 
made and all the precautions taken, and the party 
proceeded in sledges on their journey. 

Everything went smoothly, and at last they 
reached the Saxon Valley, where, owing to the heavy 
fall of snow, it was impossible for them to proceed 
any further, as the narrow mountain defiles giving 
access to Hungary were impassable. There was 
nothing else to be done but to put up at the village 
for the night until the snow could be sufficiently 
cleared away to allow them to continue their journey. 

It so happened that Magda's family resided in 
this very village, and there was no other alternative 
but to put up at their house. Her father Janos was, 
as the readers will remember, in the employ of 
Prince Apafly, who had a hunting-seat close by the 
village of Balazsfalva. 

The party rested and refreshed themselves after 
the fatigue of the day's journey, made themselves 
as comfortable as they could, and then retired. 

Hardly had they closed their eyes when they 
were rudely awakened by tumultuous sounds and 
cries of alarm. A fire had broken out, and the entire 
village seemed to be enveloped in flames, which for 



a long distance tinted rosily the wide expanse of 
snow, and in the midst of this terrible scene large 
hordes of wild Tartars, who frequently made in- 
cursions into Transylvania, were seen rushing to 
and fro with blazing torches, pillaging everywhere, 
dragging men in chains after them, and carrying away 
shrieking women in their arms. 

Horror-struck by the spectacle, the small party 
barricaded themselves in, and prepared for their 
defence. It seemed a hopeless case to hold out 
against such a large number, but Bethlen and his 
friends were all resolute warriors. The Tartars 
appeared and laid siege to the house, but they were 
one after another struck down by the hail of bullets 
from the defenders. The attacks became more 
frequent, and, indeed, at one time it seemed as 
though they would force their way into the house, 
but each time they were repulsed by the besieged. 

In the midst of all this excitement no one noticed 
Janos, who, having obtained leave from the Prince to 
take a holiday with his family, managed to slip away 
and cut a way through to Balazsf alva to seek assist- 
ance. In the meantime the position of the party 
had become desperate. They had exhausted their 
ammunition, and their swords were their sole means 
of defence. More than once, through the shattered 
windows, the Tartars attempted to make their way 
in, but each time they were slain by the brave 
defenders, and even Magda, hatchet in hand, resisted 
the entrance of the dreaded enemies. 

At last, when every hope seemed to have vanished, 
and the roof of the house was in danger of being 



caught by the flames all around, and portions of the 
walls were giving way, suddenly a detachment of 
cavalry were seen approaching in the far distance. 
They galloped along with lightning rapidity ; it 
seemed as though they were flying along in the air, 
and indeed in no time they were dashing through the 
plains of the burning village, carrying with them the 
blue, yellow, and red coloured banner of Tran- 
sylvania. " God be praised," said the priest, who 
was one of Bethlen's party, as he saw them 
approaching, whilst the Tartars savagely turned to 
face them. The struggle was a short one. In a few 
moments the small detachment of well-trained 
horsemen, numbering barely fifty, broke through the 
Tartar ranks, and beneath their glittering swords 
numberless barbarians fell victims. 

The leader of this small force, a young and 
dashing knight, whose face was hardly visible 
through his armour, seemed so anxious to reach the 
house of the besieged party, and made his way 
through the enemy with such lightning-like rapidity, 
that more than once he became detached from his 
men and was in danger of being captured, but the 
swift fall of his sword cleared the way, and in no 
time he and his force, who had caused such devas- 
tation in the Tartar ranks (who fled in confusion) 
were before the house of Bethlen's party. Here the 
young knight dismounted, and Bethlen immediately 
approached him and held out his hand, saying, " I 
greet you, young knight. You must know that I 
made a solemn vow, that whoever saved us from 
these dreadful Tartars, rich or poor, provided he be 



a knight and unmarried, should receive my daughter's 
hand ! " 

" Thank you," answered the knight, in a sup- 
pressed voice, " I accept your offer," and seeing Ilona 
standing by, trembling with fear and excitement, 
he took her hand tenderly and drew her to his 

Ilona, immediately upon his touch, became 
ghastly pale, and would have fallen fainting to the 
ground had it not been for his aid. The priest, 
Germyeszegi, was close upon the scene, and imme- 
diately upon recognising Apaffy, raised his hands in 
thankfulness to heaven, saying, " May God bless 
this union ! " 

" Amen ! " said the young knight, doffing his 

The disclosure of the Prince's identity caused 
great excitement, and Ilona, upon recognising him, 
cried out in joy and threw herself into his arms, 
saying, " Oh ! Michael, is it really you ? " 

A few weeks later the marriage of Ilona Bethlen 
to Prince Apaffy II. was celebrated. 

The marriage was one of great happiness, but it 
cost Apaffy his throne. 



The House of Apaffy 

One of the oldest and mightiest families in Tran- 
sylvania were the Apaffys, descendants from the 
same stock as the Rhedeys. One of their ancestors, 
George Apaffy, was a great adherent of King Zigis- 
mond (the rival King to Ferdinand I.), and accom- 
panied him to Szekesfehervar, the ancient corona- 
tion city, to meet the Sultan when the occupation 
of Buda by the Turkish troops was decided upon. 

But by far the most distinguished member of the 
family was Michael Apaffy, who was Prince of Tran- 
sylvania from 1661 to 1690. 

During the reign of George Rakoczy II., he, like 
Rhedey and Kemeny, took part in the expedition to 
Poland, where he was captured by the Tartar Khan 
and was taken to the Crimea, his captors demanding 
such a heavy ransom that in spite of his great wealth 
and the sacrifices made by his wife, Anne Borne- 
misza, who pledged the family jewels, it took several 
years to pay the enormous sum demanded. 

Michael Apaffy was the most respected man in 
Transylvania, of noble heart and great qualities, 
and, with it all, of a most modest and retiring dis- 

Though he never aspired to any power, yet he 
was, by the desire of the Sultan, placed upon the 
throne against Kemeny, the actual prince. 




Of a peaceful disposition, Apaffy was not of a 
nature to take part in the intrigues of the period, 
an indispensable quality in those days to the occu- 
pant of the throne of Transylvania, which princi- 
pality played such an important part in the balance 
of power between the mighty Ottoman and German 
Empires, which, for nearly 150 years tried their 
strength against each other in order to gain the 
supremacy over Hungary and the adjoining princi- 

On the other hand, in Michael Teleki he had a 
Chancellor of exceptional talent, a man of iron will, 
daring and cunning, who for a quarter of a century 
could play the dangerous game of friend or foe to 
the Sultan and the German Emperor without being 
suspected by either. 

In carrying out this policy, which had for its aim 
a greater Transylvania, Teleki, who was a veritable 
Richelieu, had no consideration for anything or 
anybody. He would impeach his best friends or 
nearest relations for high treason, and bring about 
their death merely because they differed from his 
venturesome policy. Amongst his victims were 
Denes Banffy, a brother-in-law of Apaffy, and a 
connection of his, who was executed at his instigation, 
and the great noble Pal Beldi, who was banished for 
ever from Hungary. 

There were, however, two persons in the Princi- 
pality who stood high in the councils of Apaffy, and 
more than once managed to foil the plans of Teleki. 
These were Laszlo Rhedey IV., son of the former 
Prince Rhedey referred to in the first part of this 

131 k 2 


work, and Anne Bornemisza, the wife of Apaffy. 
The last-named lady, who belonged to a good old 
stock, and who by intermarriage with the Festitich 
family, laid the foundations of the fabulous wealth 
and splendour of that eminent house, was possessed 
of the rarest qualities, and was in every respect a 
true pattern of womanly virtue. 

Her noble heart and mind imposed upon her the 
dutiful task of guarding her husband against the 
machinations of Teleki, and of rescuing those who 
were persecuted by him. 

In this connection many are the stories told of 
this noble lady, one of which we shall relate later. 

Apaffy' s Policy 

When Apaffy ascended the throne he had to 
choose between two masters : first, the mighty 
Sultan, to whom he owed his throne, and who was 
content to be recognised as a mere suzerain, exacting 
a nominal annual tribute without interfering with 
the religious constitution of the country ; and, 
secondly, the German Emperor, who, as King of 
Hungary, claimed supremacy over Transylvania, 
and persecuted the Protestants alike, both in 
Hungary and his other dominions. 

Apaffy, after endeavouring in vain to induce the 
Emperor to guarantee the rights of the Protestants, to 
which faith Apaffy and his country belonged, decided 
to throw in his lot with the Sultan. This brought 
him into constant collision with the German 
Emperor, and for a long time he supported Emeric 



Thokoli, who rebelled against the Emperor and 
made himself master of the best part of Hungary 
and assumed the title of King. In the end, however, 
Apaffy was persuaded by his Chancellor, Michael 
Teleki, for reasons we shall give later, to desert the 
cause of Thokoli and to withdraw his army to Tran- 

This proved fatal not only to the Turks, but to 
Transylvania. The Turks having been defeated at 
Vienna and, as a result, having at a later period 
evacuated Buda, which they had held for 150 years, 
the German Emperor, having his hands free, sent a 
large army to Transylvania under Caraff a, arrested 
Apaffy, and forced the electors of the country to 
recognise his supremacy. 

Apaffy, though still recognised ruler, died heart- 
broken in 1690. It was agreed that his son Apaffy, 
who was still a minor, should succeed to the throne, 
but this was never intended by the Emperor. Though 
he for a short period asserted his rights and ruled as 
Prince, he was ultimately expelled by the German 

Efforts were made later by Thokoli and Ferencz 
Rakdczy II. to regain the independence of the country 
(to which reference is made elsewhere in these pages), 
but Transylvania ceased to be a principality for ever. 

At the death of Apaffy II., in 1713, the successor 
of Apaffy I., the greater portion of the family 
posessions passed into the hands of the Bethlen 
family as the nearest relations of the house, and the 
direct descendants of the House of Aba. 

Maurice Jokai, the immortal Hungarian writer, 



who so graphically describes the incidents in Tran- 
sylvanian history in what he calls the " Golden 
Period," has many interesting stories in connection 
with Apaffy's reign, one of which, relating to Apaffy's 
election as Prince, in abridged form reads somewhat 
as follows : — 

Compelled to be Prince 

Ever since his return from the Tartar captivity, 
Apaffy, in accordance with the promise given to his 
wife, had retired from public life, living quietly at 
his country estate of Ebesfalva. 

A year had just gone by since his return, and 
a great family event gladdened the household of 
Apaffy, the birth of a son and heir, which event 
was celebrated with great rejoicing by his tenantry. 

In the midst of this revelry a detachment of 
Turkish horse were seen approaching, and to the 
consternation of the revellers, halted in front of the 
castle of Apaffy, the leader claiming admission in the 
name of the Sultan. 

Apaffy's retainers, fearing that this might mean 
some evil to their master — for in those days the 
appearance of the Sultan's troops in the interior of 
Transylvania meant no blessing to the country, or 
to the person to whom they were despatched — tried to 
deny his presence, but in vain, for the commander 
declared that they had positive information that 
Apaffy was at Ebesfalva, and they insisted on being 
taken to him. 

Apaffy, too, felt rather uneasy when he was 



informed of the appearance of the Turkish soldiers, 
but he had no alternative but to give instructions 
for the admission of their leader. 

The latter, in the name of Ali Pasha, the Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the Turkish garrison, delivered 
a message in which Apaffy was asked to accompany 
him to the Turkish headquarters at Kis Selyk. 

Apaffy, who could not explain the meaning of it 
all, demurred, and pleaded that he could not very 
well depart, as his wife was in a delicate state of 
health ; but in vain, the Aga declaring that he had 
instructions not to dare to return without being 
accompanied by Apaffy. 

In the meantime, Apaffy' s wife, the beautiful 
Anna, having heard that the Turkish soldiers had 
come to fetch her husband, left her apartment and, 
pale with fear, came to ascertain the reason of their 

Apaffy endeavoured to pacify her, and explained 
that there was not the slightest cause for her to be 
alarmed, as it only meant that the Pasha wished to 
see him about imposing upon him some further taxes. 
With this and other excuses he tried to console 
her, but in vain ; the beautiful wife, who loved her 
husband with all the warmth of her heart, would not 
be pacified, saying that she had some presentiment 
that she would never see him again. 

Apaffy kissed his wife most tenderly, and said 
to her, " My dear wife, you don't feel well ; doubt- 
less that is the cause of your gloomy thoughts. 
Don't be alarmed, there is not the slightest reason 
for any uneasiness. I have not done anything to 



cause the anger of the Sultan. Nevertheless, it 
would not be wise for me to disobey his command, 
so I had better go to the Turkish headquarters ; but 
I shall be back in a day or two." Saying this, he 
tenderly embraced her and made ready to depart, but 
though he pretended to treat the matter with in- 
difference, he was uneasy in his mind as to the real 
intentions of the Sultan, and the reason why his 
presence was requested by Ali Pasha. 

That same evening ApafTy arrived at the Turkish 
headquarters, and though it was late in the night he 
was immediately conducted to the tent of the 
Commander-in-Chief, who received him with all due 

He informed him that his master the Sultan had 
resolved upon the removal from the throne of 
Kemeny, who dared to oppose his authority, and 
desired to raise him instead to that dignity as one 
of those who commanded the respect of the entire 
people of the Transylvanian Principality. 

" To place me upon the throne," said Apaffy, in 
a tone of surprise. "Surely, Pasha, you must be 
joking ? " " No, not at all," answered the Pasha. " It 
is the wish of the mighty Sultan, at whose word of 
command rebellious princes will be enslaved, and 
others more worthy of high favours, like yourself, 
will be called upon to fill their places." 

Apaffy demurred and explained that he was not 
worthy of such a high position ; besides, Janos 
Kemeny, the actual prince, had a large following in 
the country, and it would be no easy matter to oust 
him from the throne. 




To this Ali Pasha replied, " Leave that matter 
to me " ; and as Apaffy still continued to make 
excuses that he was not the proper person to fulfil 
the duties that would devolve on the ruler of the 
Principality, Ali Pasha seems to have lost his 
patience, and, in a tone of anger, said, " It is useless 
your protesting, for I have told you distinctly it is 
the wish of my master, the Sultan, that you shall 
be Prince. You need not worry yourself about 
Kemeny, or anyone else, as long as you have the 
high favour of my august master." 

Apaffy shrugged his shoulders and silently 
reflected, and the thought came to him that after 
all his wife was right when she said that she had a 
presentiment that some great danger was threatening 

The Pasha, however, soon roused him from his 
reverie, saying to him, " There is no time to be 
lost ; you must issue a manifesto at once to the 
electors of Transylvania and summon them to a Diet, 
so that the necessary formalities for your installation 
shall take place without any further delay." 

" But," protested Apaffy, " who am I that I 
should arrogate to myself the right to issue a mani- 
festo to the people of Transylvania ? And who is 
likely to answer my summons ? People will laugh 
at me and think I have become mad, for, after all, 
I am but an insignificant person amongst the great 
nobles of the country." 

" If the people will think as you say, they will 
soon see that they are the fools and not you," 
answered the Pasha. 



Still hesitating, Apaffy replied, "If it is really 
your intention that the people of Transylvania 
should respond to my call, it is useless my sending 
a manifesto, for with the exception of the Szekely 
population, they are all loyal to Kemeny, and I 
doubt even if they would take the least notice of my 
summons, for I don't belong to their country, and I 
am but little known to them." 

" Never mind," said the Pasha, " you had better 
lose no time and issue your manifesto. They are sure 
to come if they have common sense, and the rest of 
the country will soon follow their lead." 

" Supposing they do come," said Apaffy, " where 
am I to hold the Diet, which alone can give a legal 
status to the Prince of the country ? At Kolozsvar 
my brother-in-law, Denes Banffy, is all-powerful and 
he is my sworn enemy ; whilst at Szeben, Kemeny 
himself is omnipotent." 

" Why not convene the Assembly here ? ' : 
answered the Pasha. 

Hearing this, Apaffy, in spite of the awkward 
position in which he found himself, could not help 
bursting into laughter, and with great astonishment 
said, " Where could one hold a Diet here in this 
village ? Why, there is not a single house which 
would hold even thirty persons." 

"There is the church," said the Pasha; " it will 
hold any number of people. If it is good enough to 
worship your God in, it is good enough to hold there 
the Assembly of the nation." 

Apaffy seemed to be perplexed at the inventive 
mind of the Pasha. He saw it was useless to make 



any further excuses, as the Pasha was too shrewd 
for him. 

He was, however, pondering in his mind 
whether there was any chance for him to escape 
where he would be out of reach, and thus put an 
end to the comedy of submitting to be elected 

The cunning Pasha evidently seemed to have 
read his thoughts ; he was not going to be out- 
witted, and therefore, without giving Apaffy further 
chance to make other objections, he held before him 
a large piece of parchment and, handing him the pen 
and ink, said, " Time is getting on, and you must be 
tired also from your long journey, so you had better 
write out the manifesto at once." 

With a great sigh and trembling hand Apaffy 
took the pen in hand, and, thinking that the Pasha 
would not understand a word of it, as it was in Hun- 
garian, commenced the document with the preamble 
that it was never his desire to seek the position of 
prince, of which he knew he was unworthy, but as it 
was the desire of the Sultan that he should do so, 
he felt compelled to address himself to the electors 
of Transylvania, relying however on their wisdom, 
inasmuch as the Sultan had absolutely made 
up his mind to remove Kemeny from the throne, 
to confer the dignity on one more worthy than 
himself to be elected to this exalted position. 

The Pasha, who, however, during his long stay 
in Hungary had become conversant with that lan- 
guage, in glancing at the document, became furious, 
saying, " What is the good of all this nonsense ? " 



You had better write in a short and decisive manner. 
I will dictate to you : — 

" We, Michael Apaffy, Prince of Transylvania 
by the grace of the Sultan, under pain and penalty 
command you to appear before us at Kis Selyk." 

Seeing that it was useless to try and get out of 
the affair, Apaffy had no alternative but to write 
the manifesto, and with a heavy sigh dropped the 
pen. The Pasha immediately handed the document 
to his orderly, with directions that it was to be at 
once despatched to its destination, and also instructed 
him to allot comfortable quarters to Apaffy, who was 
to remain with him pending his confirmation by the 
electors as Prince of Transylvania. 

" What ! " said Apaffy. " Am I to remain here 
all this time until the people put it into their heads 
to come here in answer to my summons ? Surely 
this is not fair to me ? Let me go back to my wife, 
and when the time has arrived for the holding of the 
Diet, I will return here." 

" Let you go so that you escape from accepting 
the position of Prince of Transylvania," said the 
Pasha. " No ! I am not fool enough to do that. 
I know you Hungarians too well for that. Those 
whom we do not care for, pester our lives with their 
desire to become princes, whilst others of your kind 
wish to escape their responsibilities. No, Prince 
Apaffy, for this is the title that you will bear in the 
future at the command of my master the Sultan, you 
shall not leave my headquarters until your election has 
been confirmed by the Diet, which I shall take good 
care shall take place here without the least delay." 



Saying this he personally conducted Apaffy to 
his purple tent, such as only people of sovereign rank 
are wont to occupy, and at the same time gave 
instructions to his officers to keep the strictest guard 
upon him, and prevent him from escaping from the 
Turkish headquarters. 

Apaffy had a most restless night, pondering in his 
mind what all this would lead to. Why force him to 
be a prince when he preferred his simple country life 
in the company of his beloved wife, from whom he 
had been separated for several years by his enforced 
captivity in the Crimea. His only hope was that 
no one would respond to his summons to attend a 
Diet for his election, which would convince the 
Sultan that he had to look elsewhere for the suc- 
cessor of Kemeny, if he wished to remove him 
from the throne of Transylvania. With this happy 
thought he closed his eyes in the early hours of 

A few days after this event, whilst Apaffy was 
quietly resting, he was suddenly disturbed by the 
appearance at his tent of a great number of the 
Szekely nobles, who were anxious to pay him their 

" In the name of Heaven what has brought you 
here ? " said Apaffy. 

" Why, it was your Highness who commanded 
our presence," said NaUczi, one of the magnates. 

" Yes, yes," said Apaffy, " but you ought to have 
had the common sense not to have come." 

w Never mind," answered Count Kun, " we are 
here now, and we have made up our minds to 



perform the ceremony of your election and inaugura- 
tion as our Prince." 

" You are not numerous enough for that, my 
friends," said Apafiy. 

" Are we not," promptly replied Nalaczi ; and, 
saying this, he drew aside the curtain which barred 
the entrance of the tent, and pointed at the large 
array of Szekely nobles who were drawn up in front 
of the tent waiting to pay homage to their Prince- 
elect, and catching a glimpse of him they loudly 
cheered, proclaiming him their Prince. Apafiy was 
amazed to see such a large number of nobles respond- 
ing to his summons, but in his heart he really wished 
they had not come. 

He addressed them and begged them to recon- 
sider their decision, and explained to them his posi- 
tion, his unfitness to occupy such an exalted position, 
but in vain ; they one and all enthusiastically 
demanded his election, and before he had time to 
look round he was picked up and carried upon the 
shoulders of the people to the Protestant church, 
where all the dignitaries were already assembled in 
order to perform the ceremony of his election and 
installation as Prince. 

In spite of his protests to be relieved of the high 
honour the memorable Assembly of Kis Selyk held 
in the parish church, by a unanimous vote and 
accompanied by much ceremony, proclaimed Apafiy 
as their Prince. 

Just as he was leaving the church his brother 
Istvan came to meet him. He had arrived from 
Ebesfalva too late to be present at the ceremony. 



Apaffy, without giving him a chance to congratu- 
late him on his election, enquired after his wife, and 
whether she was aware of his election as Prince. 

" Yes," answered Istvan, " and she thinks no 
better choice could be made, as she feels sure you will 
make a good ruler " ; but he added laughingly, " If 
you are not careful, the good lady will not only rule 
her husband, but also Transylvania." 

" I am sure," retorted Apaffy, " that no better 
or wiser ruler could be found in this Principality, 
and with her assistance I feel I shall be able to 
perform the duties that have devolved upon me as 
Prince of Transylvania." 

After the inauguration ceremony, Apaffy pro- 
ceeded to Segesvar with the determination that now 
he had accepted the title of prince he would use his 
utmost endeavours to oust his rival. 

His partisans increased all along the road, and 
he had no trouble in occupying the fort. Day by 
day the number of his adherents was swelled by the 
fierce and warlike Szeklers, who were thirsting for 
a fight. In addition, two thousand Turkish horse- 
men, under the leadership of Kucsek Pasha, arrived 
to reinforce him. 

Whilst this was happening, Kemeny was busy 
feasting and entertaining a large number of his 
friends and adherents at Nagyszeben, comprising 
the flower of the Transylvanian nobility, the Bethlen 
brothers, Pal Beldi, Csaky, and Denes Banffy, the 
brother-in-law of Apaffy. 

On hearing the news that Apaffy was set up as 
a rival prince, Kemeny made light of the whole affair, 



and, trusting to the bravery of his large army, of 
which ten thousand men were ready to start at a 
moment's notice, he thought he would not have the 
slightest trouble in bringing Apaffy to reason. 
Some of those present, however, were of a different 
opinion ; and that they were right we shall soon 
see. A few days afterwards the two opposing forces 
met at Nagy S6zl<5s, some hours from Segesvar. 

There, a desperate struggle took place between 
the well-equipped army of Kemeny and the small 
but brave and resolute Szekely horsemen and their 
Turkish allies. In spite of the superior numbers of 
Kemeny' s forces, Apaffy' s adherents carried the 
day, and Kemeny, bravely fighting, was slain by his 
adversary, Feriz Bey, the youthful son of Kucsek 
Pasha, whose name we shall meet in a later portion 
of this book. 

Apaffy, after this victory, proceeded to Kolozsvar, 
where his brother-in-law, Denes Banffy, as Lord 
Lieutenant, was supreme. Banffy, however, was a 
sworn enemy of Apaffy, and was not disposed to 
hand over the capital of the country, but ultimately 
he changed his mind in this respect, and Apaffy, 
after defeating some of the partisans of Kemeny' s 
son, became undisputed ruler of the Principality. 

His reign was the longest of any prince in Tran- 
sylvania. He proved a true father to his people, 
and although at times he allowed himself to be 
influenced by those about him, he was ever ready 
to listen to the wise counsels of his gifted wife, who 
watched over his acts with true and affectionate care, 
both in his own interest and in those of his people. 



Princess Apaffy and the Sultan's Ambassador 

Another of Jdkai's stories is related of the Princess 
Apaffy. One day the Princess of Moldavia sought 
refuge at the Court of Apaffy. It appeared that her 
husband, who, as a vassal of the Sultan, was fighting 
on the side of the Turks against the Germans, was 
the cause of the defeat of the Turkish troops. The 
Pasha of Buda had ordered his arrest in order that 
he might be taken to Constantinople, and there to 
receive his punishment — in those days, death. 

The Prince managed to escape to Poland, but 
before doing so he sent his wife for safety to Tran- 
sylvania, where he felt sure she would be hospitably 
received by Apaffy. The Pasha, infuriated by the 
escape of the Moldavian Prince, wished to carry out 
his vengeance on his beautiful wife, and caused the 
Sultan's envoy to be sent to Apaffy and demand her 
instant surrender. 

Apaffy, of course, demurred ; in fact, he declared 
it would be inconsistent with his honour to deliver 
up to him an innocent woman through a fault com- 
mitted by her husband. The envoy thereupon 
became insolent, and declared that unless his demand 
was complied with, his all-powerful master the 
Sultan would bring about his removal from the 

Apaffy' s consort, who was present at the inter- 
view, hearing this, burst out with anger and said to 
her husband, " I would rather you lost your throne 
than consent to such an inhuman act as to deliver this 

145 l 


poor innocent Princess into the hands of her enemies" ; 
and, turning to the Sultan's envoy, said, "As to 
you, sir, you had better go back and tell your master 
that he may command his Janissaries, or men of 
your type, who, in their younger days, before they 
were initiated into the secrets of diplomacy, were 
camel drivers, but he will not compel the Prince of 
Transylvania, an Apaffy, to commit such an un- 
chivalrous act, one so inconsistent with his honour, 
as you demand." 

So overcome was the Turkish envoy by the 
Princess's eloquence that he persuaded the Pasha 
to forego his vengeance. 

Apaffy's Court Jester 

Here is another story related by the same writer in 
connection with another princess of the Apaffy family. 

Apaffy had a court jester who, like his kind, 
had the great gift of making others believe (even his 
shrewd master Teleki) that he was a fool, and he was 
allowed to come and go where he willed, the greatest 
secrets of State being discussed in his presence 
without the slightest fear or suspicion that he was 
likely to divulge them to anyone. 

Women, as a rule, have a greater gift of judging 
men than their own sex, and the Princess was, 
perhaps, the only person at the Court who had 
discovered the sagacity of the jester. She made 
an ally of him, and in this way came to know 
many of the State secrets, which even her husband 
thought necessary to keep from her. 



One day the court jester rushed into the apart- 
ments of the Princess and communicated to her that 
Teleki had been urging in the council chamber 
the execution of the great noble Pal Beldi, who was 
then kept in prison at the castle of Kukull<5, on a 
charge of conspiracy to dethrone Apaffy, and 
although the Prince had at first refused to sign the 
warrant, in the end he was persuaded to do so. 

The Princess, having been convinced that Beldi 
was innocent of this accusation, which was merely 
invented by Teleki to rid himself of his great oppo- 
nent, sat down instantly and wrote a hasty note 
addressed to the acting governor of the castle of 
Kukiillo, in which, in her capacity as Hon. Governor 
of the castle, she made him personally responsible for 
the safety of Beldi. Once the letter was despatched 
by a special messenger, she said to the court jester, 
" Now you return quickly to the council chamber, 
watch the messenger who is likely to be sent with 
the decree ordering the execution of Beldi, and by 
some means or other you must try and detain 
him, so that he does not reach the castle at 
Kukullo', before the arrival of my messenger. 

"If by means of your trickery you can get 
hold of the decree itself and manage to destroy it, 
all the better, but under all circumstances you must 
invent some plan whereby you can detain the mes- 
senger for some time, so that mine has a long start 
in front of him. Now hearken, and remember the 
life of a noble man and the happiness of a wife and 
daughter are in your hands." 

" Gracious mistress," answered the jester quickly, 

147 l 2 


" by the sacred art of my calling I promise you that 
your wishes shall be obeyed, and I will do all in my 
power to save the unfortunate family from destruc- 
tion." Whilst saying this a pleasing smile passed 
over his countenance, betraying a happy thought 
which had just been born in his mind, and in a low 
whisper, as if afraid to be betrayed by some one 
who might by chance overhear their conversation, 
he said to the Princess, " Thank Heaven, who 
inspired me with this thought," and, continuing, 
he said, " Give me, gracious lady, one of your 
envelopes bearing the princely arms, addressed to 
the Governor of the castle of Kukiillo. There need 
be no writing ; a blank sheet of notepaper folded 
inside is all I want. Now seal it down, gracious 
lady, just like the letter which you have despatched 
to the Governor, and hand me the envelope, and I 
believe I can be trusted to do the rest." 

He quickly took the envelope which the Princess 
handed to him, placed it in his pocket, and without 
losing a single moment was rushing along the vaulted 
corridor on his way to the council chamber. 

Chance would have it that just at the moment 
he reached the castle yard leading to the council 
chamber a mounted messenger galloped up towards 
the entrance gate, and dismounting from his horse 
swiftly took up a position near the gate. The jester, 
suspecting that he might be the messenger likely 
to be despatched to the castle of Kukiillo with the 
warrant of Be'ldi's execution, advanced towards 
him in the usual silly way fools generally do, and 
after asking some idle questions and amusing him 



by showing some of his tricks, he got to know 
from him that he was about to start with certain 
instructions to the Governor of the castle of Kiikullo. 

At that moment a high Government official was 
seen to approach, and handed the messenger a letter 
carefully sealed down, just like the envelope we have 
seen the jester place in his pocket, and impressing 
upon him the urgency of his errand, he quickly 
departed. As the messenger was about to mount 
his horse, the jester snatched the letter from his 
hand, and before the latter had time to realise his 
loss, the jester exchanged it for the one he had ready 
for the purpose. 

The same afternoon two messengers arrived in 
quick succession at the castle of Kukiillo. The first 
delivered the letter of the Princess Apaffy in which 
the Governor was requested to see that on no 
account should any harm befal Pal Beldi, whilst the 
second messenger was from Michael Teleki, declaring 
that he held a warrant for the execution of Pal Beldi. 

The Acting Governor was perplexed, and paused 
to consider the awkwardness of the position. As 
Governor of the fort, Princess Apaffy had a right 
to have her orders obeyed, and, besides, he was in 
sympathy with Pal Beldi, and would like to have 
been the means of saving his life ; on the other hand, 
he knew what it meant to disregard the order of 

After reflecting for a while he broke the seal and 
opened the envelope which Teleki' s messenger handed 
him, and much was his joy when he found there was 
nothing inside but a blank sheet of paper. 



He playfully tapped the man on the shoulder and 
said to him, " Your superiors have played the April 
fool with you ; there is no order inside this envelope 
for Beldi' s execution, but a mere blank sheet of paper. 
You had better return home and say no more about 
the affair." 

The following day, at the request of the Princess, 
Apaffy rescinded the order made against Pal Beldi, 
and issued another whereby he was banished from 
Hungary. Pal Beldi eventually died in exile in 



The Founder op the Teleki Library at Maros Vasarhely 

Published by special permission of Count Samu Teleki 


The Teleki Family 

As this family has been so closely related with 
the House of Rhedey and its various branches, and 
has also given to Transylvania its greatest chan- 
cellor, Michael Teleki, it next claims our attention. 
The family descends from the same stock as did 
Elizabeth, the wife of the immortal hero, John 
Hunyady, and mother of King Matthias. 

The present head of the family is Count Samu 
Teleki, the great sportsman and explorer, whose 
daring and adventurous expeditions into the interior 
regions of East Africa, and the many discoveries 
made by him, will for ever perpetuate his memory. 

Count Teleki, in 1886, fitted out a large expedition 
and, starting from Zanzibar in the company of his 
countryman, Louis Hohnel, penetrated British East 
Africa as far as Kilimanjaro, and reached a point 
never yet attained by any previous explorer. Return- 
ing to Zanzibar, he fitted out another expedition in 
the same year, and starting with a caravan of two 
hundred and fifty men, reached Mount Kenea, 
climbing and exploring the unknown regions as far 
as Lake Baringo. Advancing still further, he dis- 
covered two lakes, which he named after the late 
Crown Prince Rudolph and his consort, Princess 

In the proximity of these lakes he also came 



across a volcanic mountain, which his companion 
Hohnel named the Teleki volcano. Count Samu 
Teleki was a personal friend of the late Prince 
Rudolph, who often paid him visits at his estates 
in Transylvania, and Teleki accompanied the Prince 
on many of his travels. 

Among the recent members of the family were 
Count Geza Teleki, an important member of the 
Tisza Cabinet in 1875. 

One of the wealthiest of the Telekis was Count 
Sandor Teleki, a man of considerable influence in his 
country. His daughter became the wife of Count 
Khuen-Hedervary, the present Prime Minister of 
Hungary, a man possessed of great capacities and 
of high principles. He is a most trusted friend of 
the Emperor-King, who places in him the utmost 
confidence. His son, Count Alexander Khuen-Heder- 
vary, is attached to the Austro-Hungarian Embassy 
in London. 

Another Teleki, also Sandor by name, made him- 
self conspicuous during the last century by fighting 
not only in the Hungarian War of Independence of 
1848 — and had a miraculous escape from being 
captured and hanged — but he subsequently took part 
in the Carlist and Garibaldi campaigns. During 
his residence in England he married an English lady, 
and ultimately, after eighteen years' absence, he 
returned to his native country. 

But many of the Telekis were possessed of a 
spirit of adventure, and the patriotism of their 
women is proverbial, several of them being tried 
before court-martial in 1848 for participating in the 




national cause. Amongst these should be mentioned 
Countess Blanka Teleki, who was brought before a 
military tribunal in the year 1853 and was con- 
demned to ten years' imprisonment, and was only 
liberated after she had undergone half of her sentence. 

As one of the founders of the Hungarian Academy 
of Sciences in 1827, together with Count Stephen 
Szechenyi, Count Jozsef Teleki will for ever be grate- 
fully remembered by the Hungarian nation. He pre- 
sented to the Academy a library of 24,000 volumes 
and endowed it with a large sum. A grandfather of 
his (also called Jozsef) founded a large library 
and valuable museum. 

It would be impossible in this sketch to deal with 
the long line of Telekis who, through three cen- 
turies, have gained eminence as diplomatists, his- 
torians, poets, soldiers, and benefactors to their 
country. Amongst these a place of honour should be 
given to Count Adam Teleki, who, in the eighteenth 
century, raised a regiment of his own for the 
defence of the great Queen Maria Theresia, 1745, 
and was promoted by her to the rank of General. 
He became known as a great writer, under the 
pseudonym " Corneille Cidje." And so name after 
name follows, each attaining a high position in the 
State and in literature and science ; Count Domakos 
Teleki II., who, towards the end of the eighteenth 
century, published several works ; Count Ferencz 
Teleki, a poet of considerable renown in the early 
part of the nineteenth century; and Count Samu 
Teleki, a man of great learning, who founded the 
Teleki family library at Maros Vasarhely, upon 



which he expended the sum of £80,000, which already 
in 1816 comprised over 40,000 volumes. 

Michael Teleki 

But by far the most distinguished member of the 
family, the one who established the glory of the 
house, was Michael Teleki, the great Chancellor to 
Prince Apaffy, who, as has been previously men- 
tioned in these pages, played for twenty years such 
a skilful part in preserving the independence of the 
Principality against both Turks and Germans. 

During the many years of Apaffy' s reign, Teleki 
persuaded him to recognise the Sultan as suzerain, 
seeing that the Turkish power was waning, and he 
had nothing to fear in that direction, but after the 
defeat of the Turks at Vienna in 1683, he thought 
it best to shake off the Turkish tutelage and to come 
to terms with the Emperor Leopold for the preserva- 
tion of the independence of Transylvania. 

So pleased was the latter at this, that as a result 
he sent a mission in 1685 to Prince Apaffy, guaran- 
teeing to him the independence of the country if he 
would enter into an alliance with him. 

This would have been a masterpiece of diplomacy 
on the part of Teleki had the Emperor intended to 
keep his promise, but this was not the case, for after 
the recapture of Buda in 1686 from the Turks, the 
Emperor, feeling sufficiently powerful to dictate 
terms to Apaffy, sent a large army to Transylvania 
under Caraffa with the object of bringing into sub- 
mission the country. By this time Teleki was already 



Governor-General, and Apafly, distressed at the 
death of his wife and the political turn of events, 
retired to his castle at Fogaras and placed all the 
power into the hands of Teleki. 

Being threatened with reprisals by the Austrian 
general, he had no other alternative but to counsel 
Apafly to recognise the overlordship of the Emperor, 
to which Apafly reluctantly consented, and thus 
remained Prince till 1690, when he died ; but, as a 
matter of fact, Teleki, who was appointed a general 
by the Emperor, in reality was the practical ruler. 

The death of Apafly in 1690, however, brought 
disaster to Teleki, for the Sultan, trying to reassert 
his former influence in Transylvania, instead of 
recognising Apafly II., the young son of Michael 
Apafly, as the successor to the throne, appointed 
Emeric Thokoli, the great Hungarian hero, as Prince 
of Transylvania, and lent him a large army for the 
invasion of the Principality. This greatly alarmed 
Teleki. There was a long-standing feud between 
Teleki and Thokoli, which had a far-reaching influence 
on the critical fortunes that the country was plunged 
in, and tended in the end to cause its fall. 

The Teleki and Thokoli Feud 

Teleki had a very pretty daughter, Flora, who 
became engaged to Thokoli, one of the handsomest 
and most daring men that could be found in Hungary 
or Transylvania. Thokoli had a dream of seeing 
those two countries liberated from the German rule, 



and placed himself at the head of a movement for 
the expulsion of the Habsburg dynasty from his 
country ; and, indeed, at one time was master of the 
whole of Upper Hungary, and the Sultan nominated 
him as King. One day, however, Thokoli chanced 
to come across the young widow of Francis 
Rakoczy I., better known in history as Ilona Zrinyi, 
to whom we shall have so often occasion to refer, 
and who was a connection of the Rhedey family. 
Ilona Zrinyi championed his cause, and, above all, 
she was very beautiful. Thokoli was captivated by 
her and broke his engagement with Flora Teleki, 
and proposed to and married Ilona Zrinyi. From 
that moment Teleki became the open enemy of 
Thokoli, and induced Apaffy to deprive him of his 
vast possessions under the pretence that he was 
endeavouring to raise himself to the throne of Tran- 

The loss of Apaffy' s support caused Thokoli's 
defeat in Hungary, and he had to take refuge in 
Turkey. When the Turks decided upon the bom- 
bardment of Vienna he returned again, and attacked 
the German forces in Hungary whilst the former 
were besieged by the Turks, his wife, Ilona Zrinyi, 
in the meantime keeping off the German forces for 
a long time at Munkacs. In the end, however, 
Thokoli was defeated, and had again to take refuge 
in Turkey, his wife having previously been taken 
a prisoner to Vienna. As stated in a previous page, 
he was now once more on his way to invade Tran- 
sylvania with a Hungarian army, aided by a number 
of Turks. 



Teleki, upon hearing the news of Thokoli's 
proposed invasion, warned Heiszler, the famous 
German commander-in-chief, who was in charge of 
the imperial forces in Transylvania, of the imminent 
danger. Heiszler, a haughty old warrior, who did 
not know what defeat meant, laughed at the idea 
that any foe could force its way to Transylvania 
through the different passes which gave access to 
the country, and which were strongly guarded. 

" A Thokoli can do anything," was the answer 
of Teleki. 

" Then," retorted Heiszler, " he would need to 
have the wings of a bird or the daring of a Hannibal." 

That Teleki had real cause for anxiety and that 
Heiszler was right in comparing Thokoli to Hannibal 
we shall soon see, for whilst Heiszler' s large army 
was distributed about the numerous passes which 
guard Transylvania against the principalities of 
Moldavia and Wallachia, where Thokoli's main forces 
could be seen in large numbers from the heights of 
the Transylvanian Alps, Thokoli himself, accom- 
panied by the Turkish officer, Feriz Bey, whose 
acquaintance we have already made whilst a youth 
of fourteen, finding all the mountain passes and 
approaches strongly guarded by the Germans, 
who made the country inaccessible, the two 
warriors, both equal in daring and heroism, devised 
a plan to scale the dizzy heights and dangerous 
precipices of the gigantic Snow Alps. They managed 
to take across the passes an army of several thousand 
men and led them into the heart of Transylvania. 
Their sudden and unexpected appearance struck 



terror and the greatest confusion amongst the ranks 
of the large German army scattered over the 
numerous mountain passes, where they were watch- 
ing for the enemy's arrival, leaving the heart of the 
country in an almost defenceless state. 

In the fierce battle which ensued, Teleki was 
killed by Feriz Bey, whilst Heiszler was made 
prisoner and was exchanged for Ilona Zrinyi, the 
heroic wife of Thokoli, who, as we have said, was 
captured by the Germans four years previously and 
kept in prison in Vienna. In the end, however, 
Thokoli was defeated, and took refuge with his wife, 
Ilona Zrinyi, in Turkey, where they remained till 
their death at Rodosto. 


Francis Rak6czy II. 

With the exile of Thokoli and his wife Ilona, the 
family star of the Zrinyis and Rakoczys, which had 
shone so brilliantly for centuries over the horizon 
encircling the Hungarian soil, was not allowed to 
vanish, and indeed it rose with still greater splendour 
in the person of Francis Rakoczy II., the last repre- 
sentative of these two illustrious houses, both of 
which were related to Her Majesty's Hungarian 

Francis Rakoczy II., who as a mere youth of 
twelve had already aided his mother in the defence 
of the fort of Munkacs against the Germans, was 
captured, together with his mother, and taken as a 
prisoner to Austria, where he was brought up under 
the cegis of the Court, in a Jesuit college. 

When he grew up he married a princess of the 
House of Hesse, and his captors, thinking that he 
was by now sufficiently imbued with German ideas, 
allowed him to return to Hungary, and the larger 
portion of his estates were restored to him. 

Francis Rakoczy, however, soon proved that 
even the tuition of the Jesuits had not been able to 
extinguish in him the burning fire of patriotism, 
which was a sacred family inheritance of the Zrinyis 
and the Rakoczys. 

Soon after his return to Hungary, in 1701, he 



placed himself at the head of a revolution, which 
was partly owing to the persecution of the Hungarians 
and the Protestants. They desired to dethrone the 
Habsburg dynasty, and also insisted upon the 
restoration of the Principality of Transylvania, to 
which Rakoczy laid claim. The revolution failed, 
and Rakoczy was captured and again taken as a 
prisoner to Vienna, whence, however, he escaped 
and took refuge in Poland. 

He returned to Hungary in 1703, and commencing 
the revolution with only two hundred and fifty men, 
he soon gathered under his banner thousands of 
patriots, who captured fort after fort and occupied 
the whole of Upper Hungary as far as Transylvania. 

In another direction they advanced towards the 
Austrian territory and bombarded Vienna. The 
German troops, having then been employed in a 
war with France over the Spanish Succession, the 
Emperor Leopold became alarmed and sued for 
peace, but nothing came of it, and in 1705, at the 
time of the death of the Emperor, the best part of 
the country was in the hands of Rakoczy, who even 
went so far as to issue coins with the words " Pro 
Libertate " engraved on them. 

When the Emperor Joseph I. (1705-1711) 
ascended the throne he saw the necessity of coming 
to terms with Rakoczy, and offered to re-establish 
the Hungarian laws and procedure, but the Hun- 
garians, who were then so victorious against the 
German troops, would not listen to any proposition. 
The English Ambassador was asked to see Rakoczy 
to induce him to make peace ; and Rakoczy' s wife, 




who was an Austrian captive, was liberated. The 
Emperor also offered him a dukedom if he signed 
the peace. But Rakoczy replied, " I am not fighting 
for myself, but the freedom of Hungary, and the 
separation of Transylvania from that country." 

The Emperor was willing to grant every freedom 
to Hungary, but would not listen to the separation 
of Transylvania. As a result the dethronement 
of the Habsburg dynasty was decided upon by the 
adherents of Rakoczy, who was declared " King of 
Hungary and Prince of Transylvania." 

Rakoczy was also offered the throne of Poland, 
but refused to accept it until he had fulfilled his 
mission to Hungary. The Emperor begged for peace 
several times, and promised to grant freedom to 
Hungary, but Rakoczy, relying upon the support 
promised by Louis XIV. and Peter I., the Czar of 
Russia, refused to entertain the offer unless the 
Powers would guarantee it, to which the Emperor 
objected. At last Rakoczy' s wheel of fortune turned. 
A large number of his adherents, including the 
Commander-in-Chief, Karolyi, becoming tired of the 
constant struggle, lent a willing ear to the peace 
proposals of the Emperor, which had for its result 
the conclusion of the Treaty of Szatmar, whereby 
the constitutional rights of Hungary and the free- 
dom of the Protestants were guaranteed, and an 
amnesty was proclaimed also to all political offenders. 
The terms of the treaty, however, did not quite 
satisfy Rakoczy, and rather than submit thereto 
and accept the amnesty offered to him he left 

161 m 


His first place of exile was Poland, where he 
started his agitation for the restoration of the 
Principality of Transylvania. Both Louis XIV. 
and the Czar held out hopes to him, and Lord 
Raby, afterwards Lord Strafford, who was then the 
British Ambassador in Berlin and was known for 
his pronounced sympathies with Hungary, promised 
Rakoczy's envoys to exert his influence on his behalf 
with his Government. 

Rakoczy's hopes, however, were soon shattered 
by the holding of the Peace Congress at Utrecht, 
where, in spite of the efforts of Lord Strafford and 
some other representatives of the great Powers, 
notably France, the discussion of the restoration of 
the Principality of Transylvania was eliminated at 
an early stage from the programme of the Congress. 

Now follows his sad exile, so ably described from 
the diaries of the hero himself by the eminent Hun- 
garian, Professor Sandor Marki, in his recently- 
published " Life of Ferencz Rakoczy," * in which 
quite an unknown chapter in his life is revealed, 
referring to his short stay in England and the 
friendly attitude of Queen Anne towards this great 

Queen Anne's Sympathy with Rak6czy 

It appears that Rakoczy, in spite of his having 
been in alliance with Louis XIV., with whom 
England was on a war footing at the time, 

« * (Magyar Torteneti Eletrajzok.) " II. Kakoczy Ferencz/' 
Dr. Sandor Marki. 



nevertheless enjoyed all along the sympathy of 
Queen Anne, who, on more than one occasion, 
interested herself on his behalf. Finding that there 
was no chance of the restoration of his Principality, 
she endeavoured at least to see that his confiscated 
estates should be given back to him. England had 
no representative at Dantzig, where Rakdczy was in 
exile, but during his stay in the Polish city the 
Queen sent a diplomatic envoy there, so that she 
might be in touch with him and give him timely 
warning should his stay in Poland be fraught with 
danger. The opportunity presented itself very soon, 
for after the decision of the Utrecht Congress the 
Polish Government instructed Rakdczy that they 
could not any longer guarantee his personal safety. 
Rakdczy' s first intention was to take ship for France, 
but during this troublous period in which so many 
countries were involved, no ship was safe to enter 
Dantzig. It was just at this moment of his despair 
that the British representative called on him and 
offered him a safe passage in a British merchant ship 
lying in the harbour. Of this offer Rakdczy gladly 
availed himself, and immediately left with a number 
of his followers on his way to France, intending, 
however, to break his journey in England so as to 
personally visit Queen Anne and express to her his 
thanks for the sympathy shown in his cause. 

After a long and very rough voyage, in which he 
had many escapes from being shipwrecked, and also 
from being captured by a Dutch man-of-war, he 
finally reached Hull in the middle of December. 
Here, to his dismay, the ship was ordered to stay in 

163 m 2 


quarantine for forty days. Rakoczy sat down at 
once and wrote to Lord Bolingbroke explaining his 
position, and asking him to send another vessel to 
convey him to France, but at the same time intima- 
ting that he would like to pay a visit of respect to 
Queen Anne, who had always shown sympathy and 
interest in his cause. Then he waited patiently for 
the result, 

In the meantime he was permitted to land 
through the supposed intervention of a Mr. Washing- 
ton, who, it is believed, belonged to the family of the 
future famous George Washington. Being anxious 
to see Hull, he was, on landing, accorded an official 
reception by the Mayor and Corporation, and was 
most enthusiastically received by the people of the 
town, who had heard a great deal of his heroic 

Matters, in the meantime, had undergone a great 
change to the disadvantage of Rakoczy. Prince 
Eugene of Savoy, the new Ambassador of the 
Emperor, having arrived in London, strongly pro- 
tested against any mark of favour being shown to 
one whom he regarded as a rebel chief, and in spite 
of the efforts of the Lord of Strafford and Lord 
Bolingbroke, Queen Anne decided not to do any- 
thing that would be likely to give offence to her 
powerful ally, the Emperor ; but she caused a hint 
to be conveyed to his representative that she would 
support any action which King Louis XIV., with 
whom peace was about to be restored, might put 
forward. Lord Bolingbroke sent to Hull the ship 
required, with this message, and Rakoczy, after some 


Wife of Ferencz (Francis) Rakoczy II. 


delay, set sail for France, keenly regretting not having 
had an occasion to visit London. Rakoczy, in his 
Diary, says that his representative Clement told 
him afterwards, in Paris, that Lord Bolingbroke 
played a double game, and had Rakoczy given him 
a bribe of 50,000 thalers, he would, in spite of Prince 
Eugene's protestation, have arranged an interview 
with Queen Anne. On his voyage he watched with 
the greatest interest the towns on the coast, including 
Yarmouth, and expressed his warmest admiration 
for the British Mercantile Fleet. He finally arrived 
at Dieppe, where he received a very warm 

Reaching Paris (1713) he was accorded a friendly 
reception by the King, who behaved to him most 
generously, making him an annual grant. 

Rakoczy became the lion of Paris, and all the 
noblesse vied with each other in paying him atten- 
tion. Colbert, Polignac, De Gramont, Voisin, Louis 
d'Armagnac (nicknamed Monsieur le Grand), all 
loaded him with attentions, and at the salons of 
the Duchesse du Maine and Princess Conde no one 
was more welcome than Rakoczy. Indeed, he did 
not elude the curiosity of Madame de Maintenon and 
Madame St. Germain, who desired to entertain him 
in their sumptuous palaces. 

So Rakoczy stayed on till after the death of 
King Louis XIV., vainly endeavouring to restore the 
independence of Transylvania, and to receive back 
his confiscated estates. 

Finally abandoning all hopes of the restoration 
of the Principality and the return of his property, 



he left France for Turkey to join his family, and 
died at Rodosto. 

His ashes, after reposing nearly two hundred 
years on Turkish soil, were brought back to Hungary 
in 1906 by a special decree of the Emperor-King, 
who at the same time rescinded the original act by 
which Rakoczy was declared an outlaw. 



The Wesselenyi Family 

The Wesselenyi family is a very old one, though 
it only came into prominence in the sixteenth 
century, when the two brothers, Miklds and 
Ferencz I., leaving their ancestral home, Wesselenyi 
in Hungary, settled in Transylvania, where they 
soon rose to eminence during the reign of Zigismund 
Szapolyai, the rival king of the Emperor Ferdinand I. 

Ferencz I. particularly distinguished himself in 
many battles, and, when Stephen Bathory became 
King of Poland, was rewarded by numerous large 
estates for his bravery, and created a Baron. 

But the glory of the house was established by 
Ferencz Wesselenyi II., who became Palatine of 
Hungary, and played an important part in the history 
of his country. 

Ferencz Wesselenyi entered the army at an early 
age, and distinguished himself against the Turks. 
He also fought under the banner of Uladislaus IV., 
King of Poland, against the Russians and Tartars, 
and was richly rewarded for his bravery. 

The Emperor Ferdinand II. created him a Count 
and appointed him Commander of Fulek; later he 
became Commander-in-Chief of the Hungarian forces, 
and in this capacity fought against George Rakdczy 
and the Swedes. 



The Venus of Murany 

But his greatest achievement was the capture of 
the important fort of Murany, so heroically defended 
by its beautiful chatelaine, Maria Szechi, familiar in 
the history of Hungary as the " Venus of Murany." 
The fort was held in fief from the Crown by her 
husband, Bethlen, but on his death she refused to 
surrender it, and the many generals sent by the 
Emperor to compel its delivery had to return 
disgraced at being defeated by the soldiers under 
her command. 

It was now the turn of Wesselenyi to try his 

For a long time Maria Szechi bravely withstood 
the onslaughts of Wesselenyi, who, historians tell us, 
was much more anxious to capture the heart of his 
opponent than the fort itself. He was richly 
rewarded for his gallant efforts, for Maria Szechi, 
greatly admiring the bravery of the young and 
handsome knight, surrendered her heart to him, and 
with it the fort of Murany, the happy couple cele- 
brating their nuptials in the castle itself soon after 
its capitulation. 

Though the Emperor rewarded Wesselenyi by 
granting him the castle of Murany and created him 
a hereditary Count, yet some time after, when the 
Protestants were persecuted in Hungary, he, in spite 
of having been brought up in the Catholic faith, 
became their champion against the Emperor. 

Wesselenyi's popularity in Hungary became so 


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great that, in the year 1665, he was elected to the 
exalted rank of Palatine in spite of the opposition 
of some of the important members of the Court 

True adherent of the Emperor Leopold I. as he 
was, when he saw the Emperor, as King of Hungary, 
desired to destroy the Constitution of that country, 
he resigned his post as Palatine and placed himself 
at the head of a conspiracy, the members of which 
were the most famous men of the time, and included 
the great lords — Peter Zrinyi, Ban of Croatia, and 
descendant of the famous hero of Szigetvar; 
Ferencz Nadasdy, the Lord Chief Justice of the 
country ; the noble Ferencz Frangepan ; and 
Ferencz Rakoczy I. 

It was arranged that unless the Emperor con- 
ceded the demands of the country, the nation should 
rise against the House of Habsburg and dethrone 
them as Kings of Hungary. 

This plan also received the support of Apaffy L, 
Prince of Transylvania, and Louis XIV. of France 
made friendly promises. Matters were ripe for an 
open revolt, when Wesselenyi was suddenly taken 
ill. Feeling that his end was approaching, he sent for 
the priest, who abjured him to confess his sins to 
God and his King. 

Wesselenyi, who, it must be remembered, was a 
strict Catholic, was just about to disclose the secret 
plans of his party, when his wife, Maria Szechi, inter- 
posed, saying, " Yes, confess thy sins, but to dethrone 
the monarch who is unjust and cruel to his people is 
no sin. It is a virtue." And she would not allow her 



husband to continue. Again, before his death (1671), 
Wesselenyi was engaged in writing out a statement 
for the King's perusal when Maria Szechi interfered 
and tore it up. 

After Wesselenyi' s death the King discovered all 
these secret plans, and being aware that the papers 
and documents in connection with them were con- 
cealed in the castle of Murany, he ordered an army 
to attack the fort, which was bravely defended by 
Maria Szechi. At last the commander of the attack- 
ing force sent her word that if she would yield up 
the fort she would be treated with clemency. 

Her reply was, " I would rather blow up the 
castle and myself with it, than yield it up on such 
terms. I will only surrender it if a free pardon, signed 
by the King himself, be sent to my followers and 

This she received, though subsequently all the 
ringleaders were executed, with the exception of 
Francis Rakoczy I., whose liberty was bought at an 
enormous sum by his mother, the famous Sophia 

After the surrender of the castle of Murany, 
Maria Szechi left Hungary and entered a convent at 
Vienna, where she died. 

Gyongyosy, who next to Peter Zrinyi was the 
greatest poet of his time, has glorified the heroic 
defence of Murany in a poem of over nine hundred 
verses, entitled, " The Venus of Murany," for which 
Maria Szechi made him a grant of a whole village, 
called Babuluska. 



The Castle of Murany 

It might be interesting to state here that the 
castle of Murany was originally built and owned by 
the Aba family as early as the 12th century. During 
the absence of one of the members in the Crusades, 
where he accompanied King Andrew III., the castle 
was wrongfully taken possession of by the great rebel 
and usurper, Mate Csak, a powerful noble in those 
days, who defied the King's authority and made himself 
the master of the greater part of Hungary, where he 
held a regular Court and levied taxes on his people. 

The Castle of Murany then passed from hand to 
hand, and was ultimately held in fief by the greatest 
nobles and adherents of the Kings of Hungary ; 
finally it passed into the possession of the princely 
family of Kohary. 

Prince Antal Kohary, the Chancellor of Hungary, 
dying in 1826 without male issue, his daughter, who 
was married to Prince Ferdinand of Coburg, became 
possessed of the estates, which passed into that 
branch of the Saxe-Coburg family, who, as part of 
the conditions of the marriage, assumed the addi- 
tional name of Kohary. The present owners of the 
Castle Murany are Prince Philip of Saxe-Coburg- 
Kohary, son-in-law of the late King of the Belgians, 
and King Ferdinand of Bulgaria. The latter, who 
was principally brought up in Hungary, and prior 
to his election to the throne of Bulgaria was in the 
Hungarian army, is fond of spending his holidays 
at the castle of Murany, and proudly assumes, when 
incognito, the title of Count de Murany. It should 



be mentioned that this branch of the Saxe-Coburg 
and Gotha family is nearly related to Their Majesties 
the King and Queen, as well as to Count Albert 
Mensdorff, the popular Austro-Hungarian Ambas- 
sador in London, who, as is well known, is nearly 
related to the English Royal Family. He has repre- 
sented his country in the Court of St. James's in three 
successive reigns, having been a great favourite of 
Queen Victoria and a personal friend of King Edward, 
and is regarded with the same affection by King 
George and the Queen. 

Baron Mikl6s Wessel^nyi 

Another distinguished member of the family was 
Baron Miklds Wesselenyi (1750-1808). Like all his 
race, he was of great stature and manly bearing. 
At the age of seventeen he joined the Bethlen 
Huszar regiment, and in 1772, in the reign of Maria 
Theresia, took part in the expedition to Poland 
which had for its aim the occupation of that portion 
of the country which at the time of its division fell 
to her share. His handsome presence and charming 
manners, and also his skill in swordsmanship, won 
the hearts of the Poles of Galicia. He was a man 
of impulse and romantic to a degree, as evidence of 
which may be mentioned his marriage with the 
beautiful Ilona Cserei, whom he carried off from a 
convent, the pair spending their lives on his estate 
at Zsibd. Baron Miklds was none the less a man 
of deep thought, highly cultured, and of wide 
reading. Of a liberal turn of mind, he advocated 



the national rights, and thereby drew down on him- 
self the animosity of the military clique, which caused 
his arrest by order of the Emperor Joseph II. He 
was kept in prison for eight years, until 1789, when 
his wife managed to obtain his release. In 1791 he 
made his appearance in the Transylvanian Diet, 
where by his great eloquence and high principles 
he soon became the leader of the Opposition, advo- 
cating liberal reforms and the abolition of the rights 
of the privileged classes. In 1804 he was appointed 
Governor of the county of Kozep Szolnok. He was 
greatly interested in the literary progress of the 
country, and was in touch with all its shining lights. 
Towards the latter part of his life, however, his 
health declined, and in 1808 he died. 

Baron Miklds Wesselenyi (1796-1850) inherited 
his father's physical strength, and the gifted mind 
and lovable disposition of his mother. Destined for 
a political career, the opportunity presented itself in 
1823, when, after the suppression of the Tran- 
s}4vanian Diet, which during the Napoleonic wars 
had ceased to be convened, the Liberals clamoured 
for the constitutional rights of the Principality 
which had been withheld from them by the Emperor 
Francis. Wesselenyi later became acquainted with 
the great reformer, Stephen Szechenyi, and accom- 
panied him on his travels to England and France 
for the purpose of studying the constitutions of 
those countries with a view of introducing reforms 
into Hungary and Transylvania. Whilst Szechenyi 
laboured in the direction of the moral and social 
progress of the country — Hungary owing to him the 



establishment of many scientific institutions, and 
many innovations brought about by his initiative 
— Baron Wesselenyi became the exponent of the 
rights of the people, and clamoured for the abolition 
of the feudal privileges and the holding of an annual 

His line of conduct becoming troublesome to the 
Court party, the Emperor endeavoured to win him 
over to his side, but Wesselenyi was not one to 
swerve from his principles. The following story 
related about him clearly demonstates this. When 
Wesselenyi was attending a levee of the Emperor at 
Pozsony, the Sovereign, in making his round of 
the circle, stopped opposite the Transylvanian Baron, 
already distinguished as a Liberal leader, and, 
shaking his head very ominously, addressed him : 
" Take care, Baron Wesselenyi, what you are about ; 
recollect how many of your family have been unfor- 
tunate." " Unfortunate, Your Majesty, they have 
been, but ever undeserving of their misfortunes also," 
was Wesselenyi' s bold and honest answer. 

The agitation caused by Wesselenyi convinced 
the Court party of the impossibility of deferring 
further the convocation of the Diet, which in 1834 
was duly convened, Wesselenyi becoming the leader 
of the Opposition. In vain did the Emperor's 
Commissioner try to restrict the tendencies of the 
Assembly. Wesselenyi insisted on its right to 
discuss all matters pertaining to the Principality, and 
the publication of its proceedings, which was pro- 
hibited. Wesselenyi, however, disregarding all this, 
obtained a printing press of his own and published 



the speeches of the members of the Diet. For this, 
and a violent attack on the Court party policy, he 
was arraigned, and, in spite of his many eminent 
services, was condemned to be detained in the 
fortress of Buda. He was only allowed to leave for 
Austria in consequence of his failing eyesight; 
indeed, before long he became entirely blind. 

Besides his political activity, the nation owes 
much to his untiring efforts to encourage agriculture 
and the breeding of horses, his stud at Zsibo being 
famous in its day. 

The events of 1848 brought him to the front again 
in the ranks of those who aimed at the country's 
separation from the House of Austria, but the loss 
of his eyesight prevented him from taking any active 
part in the movement, and after travelling abroad, 
he died in 1850 on his way home. 

Amongst the present-day members of the House 
of Wesselenyi, it may be of interest to state that 
Baron Nicolas Wesselenyi holds at Court the 
high position of Guardian of the Sacred Crown 
of St. Stephen. To the Baroness Istvan Wesselenyi 
we often have occasion to refer. She is extremely 
charitable, having interested herself for many years 
in the welfare of her country, and founded a society 
for the encouragement of home industries, which 
she generously supports. She spends the greater 
part of her time on her estates in Transylvania. The 
Baroness, withhersister,Baroness Horvath, both born 
Rhedeys and daughters of one of the last survivors of 
that illustrious house, are the nearest living relations 
of the late Duke of Teck on that side of the family. 



The Banffy Family 

The Banff y family, which is one of the oldest in 
Hungary, dates back to the twelfth century, and 
provided to the country several Palatines and 
administrators. One of the earliest members of the 
family was Lukacs (Lucas) Banffy, who was a 
famous Archbishop in Hungary (1151-1175). In the 
election of Pope Alexander, he induced the King of 
Hungary to side with England and France against 
Victor, the nominee of the German Emperor. 

Of another Banffy, belonging to a different 
branch, who was Comes, Lord Lieutenant of the 
Bakony district at the time of the invasion in the 
thirteenth century, it is related that he was dragged 
by the barbarians from the altar, where he was 
performing his devotions, and tortured to death. 
His son, Istvan (Stephen), who built the fort of 
Lendva, became Ban (Viceroy) of Slavonia, and 
through this exalted dignity his son Miklds became 
known as " Banffy," meaning in Hungarian " son 
of the Ban." Henceforth the family adopted that 

Like most great families in Hungary the Banffys 
split up into several branches, and of these the 
Losoncz branch, with which Her Majesty's Hun- 
garian ancestors became related, furnished the most 
distinguished members of the family. Amongst these 



Denes Banffy, who lived in the thirteenth century, 
was a great adherent of Andrew II. , father of 
St. Elizabeth. His son was brought up together 
with Bela IV. From this Banffy sprang the great 
Dessewffy family. 

But by far the best-known member of the family 
was Denes Banffy, to whom we have already had 
occasion to refer as the brother-in-law of Prince 
Apaffy. He was the mightiest and richest noble of 
his time in Transylvania, and as Lord Lieutenant 
of the county of Kolos, which contains the capital 
of Transylvania, his power was unlimited. Though 
he was a most kind-hearted man, the regal style in 
which he lived and his haughty demeanour evoked 
the envy of many of his opponents, amongst whom 
were principally Michael Teleki and Csaky, both 
nearly related to him. These two induced his brother- 
in-law, Prince Apaffy, to impeach him ; he was 
found guilty and beheaded. Princess Apaffy did all 
in her power to save his life, and obtained her hus- 
band's pardon, but the order arrived too late. In 
his younger days he was on terms of friendship with 
Prince Rhedey III., and during the rule of the former 
he enjoyed his implicit confidence. Many of his most 
valuable relics were left to the Rhedey family, several 
interesting articles being in the possession of the 
present Duke of Teck. 

Gtyorgy Banffy, the son of Denes, was also 
persecuted after the death of his father, but later, in 
1678, became Lord Lieutenant of Kolos, and in 
1696 was created a Count. After the death of Apaffy 
in 1690 he was sent on a mission to England to 

177 n 


Queen Mary and William III., and also to the Elector 
of Brandenburg — to whose daughter the young 
Prince, the son of Apaffy, was betrothed — to obtain 
their influence with the German Emperor to secure 
for the Prince the throne of Transylvania. 

In 1691 Gyorgy Banffy became Governor of 
Transylvania. He was a great opponent of Francis 
Rakoczy II. 

Another Banffy, also called Gyorgy, who was 
born in 1747, was a trusted friend of the Emperor 
Joseph, who nominated him Chancellor in 1783. 
Later he became Governor of Transylvania. He died 
in 1822. 

Baron Dezs6 Banffy 

But the greatest of the Banffys was Baron Dezs6 
Banffy. My heart grieves me that at the very 
moment I was penning the life of this great Hun- 
garian statesman and patriot the news of his sudden 
death reached me. In his person, not only the family 
of Banffy, but Hungary has lost one of its noblest 
sons, and one whose life was, at all times, unselfishly 
devoted to his country. As an ardent Protestant he 
was the patron of the Reformed Faith in Hungary 
and Transylvania, and laboured throughout his 
eventful career to obtain equal rights for the Protes- 
tant and other religious bodies with that of the 
Catholic faith. Two powerful Prime Ministers, who 
were his predecessors in the Hungarian Cabinet, Dr. 
Wekerle and the present Premier, Count Khuen- 
Hedervary, who had the same aim in view, were 




defeated on this all-important question. But Baron 
Banff y, on his nomination as Prime Minister, carried 
the day, and, as a result, civil marriage, religious 
freedom, and the removal of Jewish disabilities have 
become established law throughout Hungary. It 
was a wonderful triumph in a country where 
Catholicism is so powerful and is the religion of the 
reigning dynasty. Banffy' s strong attitude towards 
the Papal Nuncio, who attempted to interfere in the 
carrying out of the law, will ever be remembered, 
and had its influence in the election of the present 

Banff y had a strong desire to " Magy arise " all 
the nationalities of Hungary, and thus to create one 
united kingdom. In this endeavour he was bitterly 
attacked, but this never led him to swerve from his 
path, which led to such happy results. He was the 
hardest of workers and despised all formalities, and 
if he was often accused of his brusque manners, he 
greatly pleased the Emperor-King by his honesty 
and straightforwardness, and although they did not 
always agree in the policy to be pursued, the 
Emperor-King, Francis Joseph, knew very well that 
in Banffy he always had a loyal friend in whom he 
could place implicit trust. The leading part that he 
took some years ago in the Parliamentary Opposition 
to the will of the Crown is well known, and nothing 
can speak more eloquently in his praise than that 
when the Emperor-King decided upon the forma- 
tion of a Coalition Ministry, composed of the members 
of the Opposition, Banffy, who was one of its prin- 
cipal leaders, declined to accept any office in the 

179 n 2 


newly-formed Cabinet, on the ground that the 
members had been asked by the Sovereign to 
sacrifice some of the demands formulated by the 

His kind-heartedness had no limits, and his death 
has cast the whole of Hungary into the deepest 



The Szemere Family 

The Szemere family, also related with the 
Rhedeys, is the most ancient one left in Hungary, 
and descends from Duke Huba, one of the conquerors 
who accompanied Arpad to Hungary. 

Amongst the earlier members was a certain 
Szemere, who lived in the time of Bela IV., who gave 
the name of Szemere to the village and the family. 

Many of their members have distinguished them- 
selves in the history of their country, and several 
have obtained eminence in science and literature. 

Pal Szemere and his friend, the contemporary 
poet, Kazinczy, were the greatest poets of their 
time, and it is to them that Hungarian literature 
owes its foundation. 

Bertalan Szemere was a great adherent of Louis 
Kossuth, and held the portfolio in his Cabinet during 
the Hungarian War of Independence; and later, 
when the National party proclaimed the indepen- 
dence of Hungary and Louis Kossuth became 
Dictator, Bertalan Szemere was the President of 
the Assembly. 

It is worthy of mention that when the Hungarian 
Government, in 1848, had to take flight to Debreczen, 
Arad, Temesvar, and other places, Szemere, to whom 
was entrusted the care of the crown of St. Stephen, 
of which the Nationalists had become possessed, 



concealed the sacred relics in different spots known 
only to themselves, and finally, when the Hungarian 
cause was lost and all the participants in the patriotic 
rising had to fly for their lives and take refuge on 
foreign soil, Szemere, before escaping, buried the 
crown at Orsova on the Roumanian frontier, where 
it remained for five years prior to its being restored. 
It was only in 1867, after the reconciliation between 
Austria and Hungary, that the Emperor-King was 
crowned King of Hungary with that sacred crown. 
A memorial chapel has been erected by His Majesty 
on the site of the spot where the crown was dis- 
covered, two years after the event. 

Szemere was a man of great learning and wrote 
several works. During his exile he found refuge in 
England and France. 

His son, Attila, who was born in Paris in 1859, 
and spent a great deal of his youth in England, was a 
man of great culture and has travelled in many 
countries. Returning to his native land, he became 
a prominent figure in Hungarian society, where 
for many years he was known as the " Beau 
Brummel " of Hungary. 

The Szemeres are very proud of their descent 
from Duke Huba, and of one of its members it is 
said that when he was offered a high title he haughtily 
declined, saying, "Is it likely that the descendant 
of Huba, who fought by the side of Arpad, would 
exchange his ducal crown for that of any other ? " 



The Karolyi Family 

As staunch Protestants, the Rhedeys have rarely 
intermarried with Catholic families, but their con- 
nection with the Karolyis is a very old one. It is to 
this great family that belonged Count Alois Karolyi, 
well known in this country, having held the position 
of Austro-Hungarian Ambassador to the Court of 
St. James's for many years, during which time he 
and his beautiful Countess were most popular in 
English society. Of their children, who were practi- 
cally brought up in England, his eldest daughter, 
Countess Naudina Karolyi, whose debut at the 
Court of Queen Victoria was one of the events of 
the season, married Count Berchtold, for many years 
attached to the Austro-Hungarian Embassy in London 
and now Ambassador at St. Petersburg, his great 
diplomatic skill and tact being well known in con- 
nection with the recent annexation of Bosnia, in 
which he played an important part. 

The son of Count Karolyi, also brought up in 
England, married the beautiful Countess Hanna 
Szechenyi, daughter of the eminent Hungarian 
savant-magnate, Count Bela Szechenyi, a personal 
friend of the late King Edward. 

The Karolyis own immense estates in Hungary, 
which they possessed through one of their ancestors, 
who was Commander-in-Chief to the famous 



Rakoczy II., whose cause, however, he deserted 
and became the adherent of the Emperor. Upon 
the defeat and exile of Rakoczy, who was made an 
outlaw and deprived of his estates, Karolyi received 
as a grant a number of Rakoczy' s vast properties. 

The Karolyis, like the family of Bocskay, to 
whom belonged the Prince of Transylvania of that 
name, descend from the same stock. According 
to the Anonymus Notarizes, who wrote in the thir- 
teenth century, their ancestors settled in Hungary 
in the early part of the tenth century in the reign of 
Taksony, a grandson of Arpad. 

A Gitelph Legend Recalled 

A story is told of their ancestor, a certain Count 
Micz, who was married for a number of years and 
had no children. One day the Countess was appealed 
to for help by a woman who had just given birth to 
triplets. But the Countess refused to give her alms, 
telling her she must be a wicked woman to have three 
children at a time. The woman then cursed her, 
praying that she might give birth to seven children, 
and, indeed, it so happened that the following year 
the Countess did give birth to seven sons. Horrified 
at the fulfilment of the curse, she resolved only to 
keep one of the children, and gave the others in 
charge of an old woman, begging her to destroy 

It so happened that the Count was on his way 
home, when he noticed the old woman carrying away 
the children. He got to know all about the affair, 



and took the children away, bringing them up 
secretly, and it was not till they had grown up that 
he acquainted the Countess of their being still alive. 
The Countess, seized with remorse at her wicked act, 
had often repented the deed, and received the news 
most joyfully. 

The story, which first saw the light in the eleventh 
century, reminds one very much of the Guelph 
legend of about a hundred years previous, and we 
wonder whether this Count Micz, who evidently 
came to Hungary at the same time as Arnuld, 
called the " Bad," was not a descendent of one of 
those prolific Guelphs, whose wife started the family 
tree by giving birth to twelve children at one time. 

There are besides a number of other families 
connected with the Rhedeys, and amongst these 
are the Bardossy, Kozma, and Kornis already 
referred to. 




The Ancient Homes of the House of Aba 

Having given a short outline of the different 
branches and families connected with the House of 
Aba, we shall now take the reader to the ancient 
homes of the illustrious house and those of their 
descendants, the Rhedeys, and the other branches of 
that family. 

The possessions of the House of Aba, in the height 
of their glory, were immense, and comprised vast 
territories all along the Danube, the Balaton lake 
district, and all over Upper Hungary, right up to the 
high Tatra mountain ranges, terminating at the 
north-eastern portion of the Carpathians — roughly 
speaking, occupying in all about a seventh part of the 
entire country. It would be impossible here in this 
short sketch to do justice to a district so richly 
endowed by nature, with the soil of which so many 
historic events and romances are associated. Yet 
even a hurried description will serve to show its 
significance, and the important part it has played 
from the days of the conquest of the country by 
Arpad. The Rhedeys and the other branches of 
their family, besides having their estates in Hungary, 
possessed, as we have seen, vast territories in Tran- 


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The Former Capital of Hungary 



The Birthplace of St. Stephen 


sylvania ; among themselves, indeed, they may be 
said to have owned the greater part of that country. 

The Danube Towns 

The Danubian towns first claim our attention, not 
only for the reason that this is the way that Hungary 
is generally reached, by the traveller coming from 
England, but because this part of Hungary was the 
scene of so many heroic battles fought by Samu 
Aba against the Emperor Henry III., which in the 
end resulted in the defeat of the former. 

The visitor coming from Austria to the beautiful 
Hungarian metropolis, Budapest, either by the 
Danube steamer or the two different railway routes 
connecting the two capitals of the Dual Empire, 
will, immediately upon setting foot on Hungarian 
soil, notice a number of picturesque towns and 
villages scattered about the banks of the Danube, 
and on the many islands formed by this gigantic 
river and its tributaries. 

Amongst these places, which once played a very 
important part in the history of the country in the 
days of the Romans, and during the conquest of the 
country by the Magyars just referred to, the first 
town that meets the eye of the traveller along the 
left bank of the Danube is Magyar Ovar. This city 
is noted for its Agricultural Academy — the largest 
in the country. 




From here we soon reach the town of Mosony. 
A great battle was fought at this spot between the 
armies of King Samu Aba and the Emperor Henry III. 
of Germany. It was here also that at the time of 
the Crusades many thousands of the Crusaders, who 
so poorly repaid Hungarian hospitality by pillage 
and plunder, met their death at the hands of King 
K&lman's army (1096). 


Travelling by the opposite shore of the Danube 
we come to the historic city of Pozsony, where were 
crowned the Kings of Hungary from the sixteenth 
century, as the then capital of Hungary. On its 
lofty hill, called " Kiralyhegy " (King's Hill), the 
sovereigns of Hungary, after their coronation, took the 
oath of fidelity by drawing the. sword of St. Stephen, 
turning to the four points of the globe, saying, " I 
will defend my country, whenever it may be attacked, 
with this sword which the nation has delivered into 
my hands." 

It was at Pozsony that Maria Theresia, when 
menaced by the whole of Europe, appeared in the 
Hungarian Assembly and appealed to the chivalry 
of the magnates for their protection, the nobles, 
including several ancestors of Her Majesty the 
Queen, uttering the celebrated dictum, " Moriamur 
pro rege nostro Maria Theresia." 


By Fadrusz 


It will be, perhaps, of interest to state here that 
it was at the Congress of Pozsony, known as the 
Treaty of Pressburg, that the Duchy of Wurtemberg 
was created a kingdom in 1805. 

The town is most picturesquely situated along 
the Danube, and besides the Gothic cathedral, com- 
menced in the eleventh century, in which the Kings 
of Hungary were formerly crowned, and the Houses 
of Parliament of the thirteenth century, several of 
the mediaeval gates of the town, which still remain, 
are of great interest. On the hills surrounding 
Pozsony some of the best Hungarian wines are 
grown. The inhabitants of the neighbourhood are 
composed of Magyars, Slavs, and Germans, and their 
quaint costumes offer a great novelty to the tourist. 

f Gyor 

Proceeding further amidst romantic scenery, 
Gy6r next claims our attention. Gyor used to be a 
favourite residence of King Samu Aba, where he 
kept his vast treasures, and it was here also that, 
owing to the treachery of his nobles on account of 
his sympathy with the people of the country, Samu 
Aba was defeated by the Emperor Henry III., and 
his family taken prisoners. 


Quite close to Gy6r, on one of the three hills which 
rise abruptly out of the plain, is the great Bene- 
dictine monastery of Pannonhalma, the oldest home 



of Christianity in Hungary, founded by St. Stephen, 
and exceeding in splendour all the other abbeys of 
the order. It was a seat of learning for several 
centuries and possesses a library of over one hundred 
thousand volumes. This is the abbey referred to 
where Godfrey de Bouillon, with his wife and brother 
Baldwin, stayed on their passage through Hungary 
to the Holy Land, and were entertained there by 
King Kalman and the Prince Abbot of the monas- 
tery, who, like Her Majesty's ancestors, belonged to 
the House of Aba. 

The Crusaders in Hungary 

During their stay in Hungary, King Kalman not 
only showed lavish hospitality to Godfrey and his 
party, but also gave them costly gifts and escorted 
them with all honours to the frontier of his 
territory. His generosity speaks eloquently for 
his chivalry when we remember the excesses and 
outrages committed in Hungary by the earlier 
contingents of Crusaders led by Peter the Hermit, 
Walter the Penniless, and especially of the fanatic 
priest, Gottschalk, and a host of other leaders. 
Indeed, it was no easy task for Godfrey de Bouillon 
to obtain permission at first to pass through 
Hungary, and it was only when he sent his brother, 
Baldwin, at the head of an imposing embassy to 
Kalman, pledging his word on the sword of his 
ancestor, Charlemagne, that he would answer for 
the good conduct of his men, and at the same 
time offering his wife and brother as hostages, that 



Kalman gave his consent, though he never intended 
exacting these conditions. 

But the fact might be recalled here that Godfrey 
de Bouillon was not the only leader of the Crusaders 
who received generous treatment by the Hun- 
garian kings of the House of Arpad. During the 
Second Crusade, in the reign of Geza II. (1114-61) 
both the Emperor Conrad I. and Louis VII. of 
France received the same kindness. In the Third 
Crusade, in the reign of Bela III. (1173-96), the 
Emperor Frederick was struck with the magnifi- 
cence of the hospitality he enjoyed at the Hun- 
garian Court. The Crusaders, however, rarely proved 
their gratitude to Hungary, and this was never 
more noticeable than in the Crusade led during 
the reign of Imre, in 1201, by Simon de Montfort, 
Walter de Brienne, and Godfrey de Villehardouin, 
the chronicler of the Crusades, who, in considera- 
tion of a rebate of 35,000 silver marks as the cost 
of their passage to the Holy Land, agreed to aid 
Doge Dandolo to capture Zara from the Hun- 
garians, although they had been previously gener- 
ously entertained by them. 

Though, with the exception of Andrew II., none 
of the Kings of Hungary took a personal part in 
any of the Crusades, owing to the wars in which 
they were engaged with their neighbouring states, 
nevertheless the Crusades always had the generous 
support of the Hungarian monarchs ; and indeed it 
would have been difficult to convey such large 
armies to the East, had it not been for the gener- 
osity and assistance of the Hungarian kings, who 



themselves also sent several contingents to the 
Holy Land. The first of these was led by Prince 
Boris, the rival claimant to the throne of King 
Geza, who joined Louis VIL's expedition, whilst 
in the Third Crusade, King Bela III. sent his brother, 
Geza, with a Hungarian contingent, under the 
leadership of the Emperor Frederick. 

Marriage Alliances with Crusaders 

It might not be out of place here to say that 
the Hungarian Court was closely allied by marriage 
ties with most of the leaders of the Crusades, or 
those who were prominently associated with the 
great movement, and the fact of their passing 
through Hungary was more than once the means 
of bringing about further alliances. In the first 
instance it is interesting to state that King 
Kalman's Queen, Buzilla, was the daughter of 
Roger I. of Sicily, thus a cousin of both Tancred 
and Bohemond — the heroes of the First Crusade — 
and a connection, of course, of the Norman 

St. Ladislaus' daughter, Irene, was the wife of 
John II. (1088-1143), styled the " Byzantine Marcus 
Aurelius," and her sympathies largely helped the 
Crusaders at Constantinople. Her husband, as we 
know, was the son of the Emperor Alexis L, and 
brother of the famous Anna Comnena, who wrote 
the first account of the Crusades. 

The Emperor Frederick I.'s passage through 
Hungary, which coincided with that of Louis VII. 



of France, also left its result in the marriage mart, 
for his son was in after times affianced to the 
daughter of King Bela III., and if King Louis's 
previous sojourn in Hungary was marred by the 
quarrel he had there with his wife, Eleanor of 
Aquitaine, it had at least one result, that in after 
years, when Bela III. became a widower, he was 
married, in 1186, to Margaret, daughter of Louis VIII. 

There seems to be little doubt that this Margaret 
was the Margaret of France who was previously 
married to Prince Henry, the second son of Henry II. 
of England, and, as is well known, was the cause 
of trouble between England and France, owing to 
young Henry, who was crowned King of England 
at Winchester, 1170, during the lifetime of his 
father, refusing to crown his wife at the same 
time. Henry dying in 1183, she was married to 
King Bela three years later. 

Another marriage which was doubtless brought 
about in connection with the Crusades was that 
of the Emperor Frederick II., to Constantina of 
Arragon, widow of King Imre (1196-1205). 

Finally, it must be remembered that King 
Andrew II. (1205-35), who himself led a crusade to 
the Holy Land in 1217, was married to Gertrude 
de Meran, who, as stated elsewhere, was a near 
relation of the Hohenstaufen Emperor, whilst the 
daughter of Andrew II., the famous St. Elizabeth 
of Hungary, married Louis IV. of Thuringia. 

It will be seen from this brief sketch that 
the kings of the House of Arpad, who were of 
the same blood as her Majesty's Hungarian ancestors, 

193 o 


became at an early period closely related to the 
Hohenstaufen ancestors of her Majesty. 

Szent Marton (Saint Martin) 

Not far from here, on the way to Pozsony, is the 
village of Szent Marton, where St. Martin is sup- 
posed to have been born. In the twelfth century one 
of the earliest ancestors of the Rhedeys resided there 
and owned the vast estates round it, and the family 
then styled itself " de Rede et Szent Marton." It 
is worthy of note that after the defeat of King 
Bela IV., during the Tartar invasion of Hungary 
(1242), he took refuge here, evidently with the 
Rhedeys, who were his kinsmen. In a short time 
we reach Komarom. 


the ancient Hungarian fort founded in the thirteenth 
century, which proved impregnable for all time, 
is still termed " the Virgin Portress of Hungary." 
Komarom was the birthplace of the immortal 
Hungarian poet and writer, Maurice Jdkai. The town 
was one of the greatest centres for trade in the early 
ages, and Roman galleys used to discharge their 
rich cargoes at this place. In the thirteenth century 
boats loaded with merchandise coming from Germany 
made Komarom their great mart. 


The next town we reach is Esztergom, the seat of 
the Prince Primate of Hungary. It was here that 


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King St. Stephen was born, baptised, and in the 
year 1000 a.d. was crowned as the first Christian 
King of Hungary. The castle, which is now in ruins, 
served as a royal residence to him as well as to King 
Samuel Aba, and the other kings of the Arpad 
dynasty, from the eleventh to the fourteenth century, 
when it was forsaken for Visegrad in its close 
proximity. Behind the fortified walls of Esztergom 
a large number of traders settled, and it became the 
centre of the trade between the East and West, but 
the Turkish occupation put an end to the prosperity 
of the city. The Cathedral, which stands majestic- 
ally on the summit of the rock, is one of the largest 
and most beautiful churches in Hungary. St. Stephen 
is said to have been born on the very spot where 
St. Stephen's Chapel stands. 


Winding our way towards Budapest amidst 
ranges of hills sloping down to the banks of the 
Danube, we come to the cathedral town of the city 
of Vacz with its picturesque surroundings. Its 
bishopric is a very important one, and the palace a 
most imposing building, which cannot fail to attract 
the immediate attention of the traveller. 


Close to here, on the summit of a hill on the 
opposite bank of the Danube, stands the castle of 
Visegrad, of which only a few ruins are left, in its 

195 o 2 


day one of the noblest royal palaces in the land. Its 
magnificent halls and hanging gardens were the talk 
of Europe. It was a favourite resort of King Matthias 
Corvinus, and his headquarters in his hunting 
expeditions in the neighbouring forests. 


Finally we reach the capital of Hungary — the 
city of Budapest, the city of pleasure and gaiety, 
of song, music, and art, and the city of romance. 
As the object of this account is to acquaint the 
reader with the home of the Rhedeys, I shall not 
attempt here to give a description of the wonders of 
this beautiful city. Suffice it to say, that its unrivalled 
situation, its magnificent streets, imposing buildings, 
and beautiful surroundings proclaim it one of the 
finest cities in the world. 


The Balaton Lake District 

We must now hasten to the Balaton and Bakony 
districts, which vividly recall the memories of the 
birth of Christianity in Hungary, and the laurels 
gained by Samu Aba in vanquishing the mighty 
heathen leader, Kupa. It is one of the most interest- 
ing parts of Hungary, and the Balaton Lake is not 
only the largest in the country, but also in the 
whole of Central Europe. 

The best way of reaching this picturesque district 
is to take train from Budapest, via Szekes-Fehervar. 
This town was the ancient place of coronation of the 
Hungarian kings of the Arpad dynasty, and also 
their last resting-place. Szekes-Fehervar contains 
a fine cathedral and several public buildings. There 
is a monument in honour of the great Hungarian 
poet Vorosmarty, who was born close by at Vertes. 

Balaton Fured 

From here we reach in a short time Sidfok, the 
terminus, from which the boat takes us to Balaton 
Fured. Very few places have been so gifted by 
nature as Balaton Fured and its district. Maurice 
Jdkai, in describing it, says : — 

" I have travelled through various parts of the 
country, and have been to the endless plains of the 



Lowlands. I have stood on the summits of the 
Szekely snow-clad mountains, but what has en- 
chanted me most is the district of Balaton. The 
Alf old seems to me like a mother who does not don 
her best apparel before her children, and does not 
care to put herself out of the way to appear beautiful 
on their behalf, but by the expanse of the golden sea 
of cornfields she knows how she loves them, and 
what a good mother she is, and whilst she tells the 
fairy tales of the gliding Fata Morgana, she sings 
their cradle-song in the music of the larks. The 
picture of Transylvania appears to me like a proud 
fairy, who is astoundingly faithful, magical, and 
alluring. The sighing of the pines whispers sweet 
words. The sight of the Alps draws you away to the 
distance, and makes you long for the unattainable, 
and a painful feeling adds its weight to your parting. 
Oh, but the Balaton is an enchanting bride, who 
waits for her bridegroom. At every point she shows 
him her charms. The further we look the more 
beautiful she seems to be, and, though I may be 
laughed at, I say that the whole district smiles. 
... As a farmer, I give the first place to the plains of 
the Tisza ; as a politician, I fall in love with Tran- 
sylvania ; but as a poet I give the apple of beauty to 
Balaton. Only this pains me, that I cannot describe 
it as beautiful as I saw it before me." 

As you proceed on the gigantic lake, the surface 
of which ghtters in the rays of the sun, you are 
struck by the lovely scenery and the various 
objects of interest. On one side stretch ranges of 
hills, now and again bleak and desolate, at other 


(The Ancient City op Coeonation) 



times richly wooded and covered with luxuriant 
vineyards. On every side there are numerous 
deserted castles and ruins, each of which has furnished 
a favourite subject to the great Hungarian poet, 
Kisf aludy ; in addition to which the people have 
many stories to tell concerning them. Thus you 
are pointed out the ruins of the ancient fort where 
Michael Ujlaky, the great opponent of Matthias 
Corvinus, lived, and the story goes that when the 
Turks in 1593 occupied this fort, an old Turkish 
soldier, seeing the portrait of one of the Ujlaky 
family, pierced it through with his sword. This 
was done on a Thursday, and on Friday the old 
Turk was found dead in his bed, and it was said that 
Ujlaky suffocated him, as his neck bore the mark 
of fingers. On every subsequent Friday one of the 
Turks died, and the Turks got so alarmed at this that 
they left the fort. Not far off are stone walls, 
between which a small stream flows, which is called 
" Kinizsi Ugratd " (Kinizsi's jump), and we are told 
that whilst Kiniszi's comrades were trying to destroy 
the bridge across the stream after they had passed 
over, being pursued by the Turks, Kinizsi fought 
single-handed against the enemy, and when the 
bridge was pulled down he jumped over the stream, 
which the Turks could not do. 

Further off the ruins of the castle are pointed out 
where Kupa lived, who headed the heathen revolt 
against the introduction of Christianity into the land 
by St. Stephen, but was defeated and slain by 
King Aba. Yet, again, we see the spot upon which 
arose the pleasant sporting retreat of King Matthias 



Corvinus. On the other side of the lake stretch the 
endless plains on which the golden ears of corn are 
waving, and whilst you are meditating, lost in 
admiration at this grand spectacle, you discover 
Balaton Fured, which lies amidst picturesque 
mountains, vineyards, and gardens, and can only 
itself be compared to a Garden of Eden. 

Facing Balaton Fured lies, hidden amongst trees, 
the Benedictine convent of Tihany. There is a 
church here which was built by King Andreas (1047- 
1061), and inside, a tombstone marks his last resting- 

On the shores of the lake many picturesque 
towns and hamlets are scattered. 


First we reach Keszthely, a pretty town chiefly 
connected with the Festetich family. It is here 
that Count Tassilo Festetich has his regal castle. 
Here are also some interesting antiquities ; the 
Academy of Agriculture, founded by Count George 
Festetich, was the first of the kind in the country. 
Not far off, near Szigliget, two small hills are pointed 
out. On one grow flowers and grasses, whilst on the 
other are briars and little heaps of stones. The 
story goes that a peasant girl, loved by two men, 
one a rich suitor above her rank, the other a peasant, 
gave her heart and hand to her lowly lover. In 
rage and revenge the discarded rival killed her on 
her marriage day, and was in turn killed by the 
wedding-party, who pursued him. To mark the 



scorn felt for the murderer, a stone is even now 
thrown on the hill which marks his resting-place 
by each passer-by, whilst under the flowery hillock 
lies the peasant-girl he loved so madly. 

All along the Balaton, life is very pleasant and 
primitive, and the picturesque country villages and 
the fishermen's huts that one meets here and there 
on the shores of the lake add to the charm of a visit 
to this delightful region. 

An enormous amount of fish is to be found in 
Balaton, and classic harpoons have recently been 
found in the lake, showing that the Romans, too, 
appreciated the good qualities of the Balaton fish. 

The fogas caught in the lake is one of the most 
prized fish on the Continent, and was much 
relished by the late King Edward on his visit to 
Austria-Hungary. One of the most curious pheno- 
mena connected with the lake of Balaton is that at 
times, when the weather is calm, the lake becomes 
all of a sudden most stormy, whilst frequently it 
does not seem to be affected by gales. The wines of 
the Balaton lake, especially those of Badacsony, are 
famous. The historic castle of Siimeg is in the 
vicinity of this region. 


At the extreme end of Lake Balaton is the his- 
toric and ancient city of Veszprem, picturesquely 
situated on five hills. A bishopric and cathedral were 
founded here by St. Stephen, and at one time it had 

a palace where Queen Gisela resided, and, according 



to tradition, had at her Court there the English 
Aethelings. The only relics of the ancient edifice are 
the Gisela Chapel, and a few ruins of the once 
important citadel. Queen Gisela endowed the 
cathedral with many precious gifts, and the ancient 
chroniclers dwell at great length upon the costly 
pictures which she presented to the Church, set with 
most precious gems, diamonds, and pearls. She 
attracted to her Court the most pious men of the 
time, both from Italy and Germany, and doubtless 
it was at her Court that St. Margaret of Scotland, 
as a child, received the first religious inspirations of 
which she in later years became so strong a champion. 
Many relics have been excavated at a Roman colony, 
which at one time occupied a site near Veszprem. 

Passing V&rpalota and the Cistercian monastery 
of Zircz, the only one of the kind in Hungary, we 
penetrate to the very heart of the Bakony forest, 
the once dreaded haunt of brigands, where the gallant 
Sobri Jdska the Hungarian Robin Hood, held sway 
for such a long time, and poets and romancers like 
to dwell on his exploits. 

It was here in this dense forest that, many cen- 
turies before, King Samuel Aba, after his defeat at 
Gy6r, took refuge, and was sheltered in a peasant's 
cottage. Ill-luck, however, seemed to pursue him, 
for the cottage was struck by lightning. It is said 
that in his flight he was betrayed by one of his former 
adherents and slain by the enemy. 

The journey to Gy6r across the huge forest, 
studded here and there with villages and hamlets 
and their quaint peasantry, affords one of the most 






" .} rr * > • 

' -, ' . 

Ell i TIT •"'igjj^W 



' L» 




interesting scenes to be met with in Hungary, and 
before we reach the edge of the forest we have an 
opportunity of making a closer acquaintance with 
the Abbey of Pannonhalma, and once more we are 
back at Gyor, and from there in no time in the 
Hungarian capital. 




The Northern Highlands 

We shall now ask the reader to follow us to 
Northern Hungary, to the picturesque country of the 
Slovaks, which played such a great part in the early 
conquest of Hungary. Its history is a very interesting 

At the time of the conquest of Hungary this 
portion of the country belonged to the great Moravian 
Empire, which included Moravia proper, and ex- 
tended to Bohemia on one side and to Poland on 
the other. Its king, Svatopluk, was a most power- 
ful ruler and a great rival of the Emperor Arnolf 
(850-899), who in vain endeavoured to destroy his 
power. Arnolf therefore, upon the arrival of the 
Magyars in Europe, seized the opportunity to ally 
himself with Arpad, and, as a result, the Hungarians 
conquered a great portion of Svatopluk's lands, 
forming the whole of Upper Hungary. Amongst the 
dukes who were especially engaged in the great 
struggle, which extinguished the country famed for 
centuries, was Arpad himself ; Huba, the ancestor 
of the Szemere family, Duke Ede, and Bors ; and 
they between them captured the stronghold of Nyitra 
Zdlyom, Galgocz, Trencsen, and all the districts along 
the Vag valley, and on the northern slopes of the 
Carpathians, and they became possessed of the 
enormous district which we are now about to visit. 



The Slovaks, who are the descendants of the 
original inhabitants, speak a language similar to 
that of the Csechs and Moravians to whom they are 
related, which has a slight resemblance to Russian 
and other Slavish tongues. They have preserved 
their quaint attire and customs throughout centuries, 
and have never assimilated with the Hungarians. 
In habits they are rather backward, which is partly 
accounted for by their extreme poverty, the country 
they inhabit, though amongst the most beautiful 
mountain scenery in Hungary, being unproductive. 

A large number of Slovaks have of late years 
emigrated to America, where they are employed in 
the mines, but usually they return to their native 
land. Their women are generally very pretty and 
fair, though they have not the intelligence of their 
Magyar sisters. The huts they inhabit are very 
primitive, and are often shared with the domestic 
animals. They are very superstitious, and they still 
hold in the greatest fear the witches, in whom they 
believe. They have some very quaint ceremonies 
connected with their weddings, christenings, and 
other religious observances. 

The Vag Valley 

Several lines lead from Budapest to the lofty and 
gigantic range of mountains which surrounds Hun- 
gary in a semicircle, but that along the winding 
River Vag is the most picturesque. As you proceed 
by the zigzag line your attention is riveted by the 
constant changes of scenery, and the various villages 



and hamlets distributed on the lofty heights where 
the picturesque castles and ruins entice you to gaze 
at them. This region is unquestionably one of the 
most beautiful in Hungary, rich alike in natural 
beauty and in places full of historical interest. Old 
ruined castles innumerable recall to mind the ancient 
times of chivalry when the Hungarian feudal lords 
kept Court in kingly state, and the people here still 
love to recite their legendary lore. 

The Castle of Galgocz is the first to greet us just 
before we reach the world-renowned health resort 
of Posteny, but as we proceed along the wildly 
romantic Vag valley one castle after the other 
follows, and unfolds its romantic story, and relates 
to you the tragic scenes which were enacted under 
its walls. 

The Castle of Trencs^n 

The ruined castle of Trencsen looms in the 
distance as we approach it, gradually growing in 
dimensions. There is a whole town on the summit 
of the precipitous rock. We can mount its tower, 
which is still undamaged, to enjoy the magnificent 
prospect. Its courtyards are separated by mighty 
walls, and the carved devices and ornamental 
windows that gape down upon us speak of the 
glorious past, and also of the time when the 
renowned oligarch, Matthew Csak, held sway here. 

The castle has a story to tell of how its deep well 
was dug. 

It appears that a distinguished Turkish woman 
was captured by the lord of the castle, who refused 


■ ■".•;■■#.■■ ■*>,*: :-■,*.••■■••' ^ •TtiiMJf'V' <^V ES*ilH 




to restore her to her lover unless he bored a well 
within the castle walls. After terrible exertions, 
when the lovers had almost perished in their despair, 
the diggers finally struck water, and the lovers were 
restored to each other's arms. 

The castle of Csejte has a more horrible story 
to tell, for there Elizabeth Bathory, the vain creature, 
mistress of the castle, who was desirous of being the 
only beauty in the district, allured within her walls 
all the prettiest Slovak maidens, and had them stifled 
so that she might have no rival. Horror of horrors ! 
This is no legend, but the cruel truth, which hap- 
pened in the seventeenth century, and the inhuman 
fiend defied the authorities and defended herself in 
her stronghold for many months until she had 
finally to surrender to the Palatine, Count Thurzo, 
who, finding her insane, confined her to her castle. 
Her accomplices were condemned to be burnt. 

Though one is apt at the commencement of the 
journey to compare the picturesque scenery here 
to that of the Rhine, so familiar to most of us, yet in 
proceeding further one finds it far excels it in many 
ways ; indeed, it claims to be unique, for no prettier 
scene can be imagined than the quaint and rustic- 
looking Slovaks- in their picturesque attire coming 
down the stream on their rafts, singing their plaintive 
and melodious native ballads, and giving a solemnity 
to the already majestic landscape of nature. 

And so, as we roll along, castle after castle appears 
and disappears. Here we see Beczko, which still 
defies the ravages of time. Temetveny, which rises 
out of a wilderness of trees, and the imposing Zdlyom 



Castle. In the distance stands out the Castle of 
Oroszlank6 (Lion Stone), which is high on the 
dizzy summit of a precipitous rock. 

We are now in the Lipto country, the land of 
the Slovaks, and on our way to the Zips country 
(Szepes), the home for many centuries of the Thu- 
ringian settlers ; and passing the imposing castle of 
Arva and numerous other ancient towns and ruins, 
we catch a glimpse of the High Tatra, and see before 
us a scene which will for ever be remembered by 
those privileged to gaze thereon. 

The High Tatra 

Long before you reach Poprad, which is one 
of the railway termini for Tatra Fiired, you 
see the immense Tatra range dazzling in eternal 
snow, its immense pine forests covered with 
icicles, glittering in the sun, emitting the colours of 
the most precious of Brazilian diamonds, and as one 
is driven along by fiery Hungarian horses, and 
reaches Tatra Fiired, the spectacle increases in its 
fantastic extravagance. Who could attempt to 
describe the beautiful scene that one beholds from 
the terrace of the Grand Hotel, " Nagy Szalloda " ? 
Nature has lavishly bestowed her bounties on this 
district. It requires more than the ordinary mind 
not to feel overpowered by the impression that this 
grand spectacle offers. One does not know where to 
look first. Shall you gaze upon the beautiful pine- 
clad heights, the summits of which glitter with 
their eternal crown of snow, on which the violet 




hues of the rising sun are reflected, or on the numerous 
lakelets, waterfalls, and streams that glitter on the 
surface of the mountains like stars in the heavens ? 
Or shall you turn your eyes down into the valley 
where lie the three different Tatra-Fureds, or further 
still, where the beautiful Zips towns, with their 
quaint, turreted castles and domes glisten with the 
colour of gold in the glorious sunshine. No words 
can express the magnificence of this spectacle. The 
Zips is a fairyland, and this is a fairy picture ! It is 
no wonder that the Hungarian fairies themselves 
like to be cradled here. 

Every inch of ground is full of interest, and the 
surrounding peaks, lakes, waterfalls, and caves, give 
you an idea of the grandeur of the Carpathians. The 
mighty peak of Lomnicz in the Zips frowns down 
upon us, and the majestic Krivan in the Lipto 
country attracts no less our attention. Here, amidst 
dense pine-forests, stretches before us the immense 
Lake Csorba, in the vicinity of which is the Barlang 
Liget, the loveliest spot in the High Tatra. Here the 
Vorosto (Red Lake), Feher (White Lake), and the 
Zoldtd (Green Lake) proudly display on their surface 
the national colours of Hungary, and, coquetting 
with each other, tell you the legendary stories of 
their past. Now, listen. 

Legends of the Tatra 

Once upon a time a fairy prince had his diamond 
castle near the Black Lake, where the huge cliff cuts 
off the rays of the sun and deprives the whole district 

209 p 


of light. He became enamoured of his neighbour, 
the fairy princess inhabiting the regions of the Green 
Lake, whom he espoused, and she, by her magic 
power, put a huge carbuncle on the cliff, which threw 
its light over the entire district ; but one day the 
fairy princess saw the King of the Tatra, to whom 
she lost her heart. From that moment her magic 
power left her. The carbuncle no longer shone. The 
prince, mad with grief, threw himself with curses 
into the Black Lake. The Tatra King, who married 
the princess, deserted her soon afterwards, and she 
has to surfer for the curses of her first husband, for, 
according to the story, she is still alive and her 
plaintive voice is yet to be heard crying in the 

How far this legend can be credited I would not 
like to say, but one thing is certain, that a large 
quantity of carbuncles have been found on the moun- 
tains and are still preserved in the National Museum. 

Close to the Zoldto (Green Lake) there is a 
mountain, called Rezut (Copper- way), and here, as 
a rule, those who are in search of gold and other 
mineral wealth attempt to make discoveries. Ac- 
cording to the legend the mountain spirits guard 
a quantity of hidden treasures, and will only show 
the way to their hiding-place to those who remain 
faithful to their lovers throughout their lives. Is it 
not strange that up till now no such lucky individual 
has been found ? There are many other legendary 
stories about every peak and rock. But in this 
twentieth century people somehow commence to 
doubt the existence of fairies, and what generally 



attracts the stranger to this region is Tatra-Fiired, 
or, rather, the three Tatra-Fiireds, the oldest and 
most fashionable of Carpathian health resorts. But 
they have now a formidable rival in Tatra-Lomnicz, 
which has been recently developed at great expense 
by the Government. 

It will be of interest to state that at Tatra- 
Lomnicz, many centuries ago, one of the Rhedey 
family had a sporting retreat. His feudal retainers 
were in terror of the place for fear of the spirits which 
haunted the Tatra district, and in the end he was 
murdered by his servant on his return one moon- 
light evening from a hunting expedition. The poor 
servant, who had not slept for weeks, out of fear of 
ghosts, had lost his reason and gone raving mad ; 
seeing his master's figure at a distance lit up by the 
pale moonlight, he took it for granted that it was 
the evil spirit of the Tatra, and, without awaiting his 
nearer approach, drew his bow and slew his master. 

The entire region abounds with places of beauty 
and entices you to remain and dwell upon their 
charm, but having to describe so many other 
districts which have a closer connection with the 
subject of this volume, we must regretfully quit this 
enchanting land, bid good-bye to the fairies at the 
lovely town of Poprad, and pay a hurried visit to 
the famous ice caves of Dobsina, one of the wonders 
of nature, an enormous mass of ice which continually 
changes in its whimsical sportiveness, offering the 
most varied formations. 

211 p 2 


The Zips 

We are now in the land of the Zips, and amongst 
the Thuringian colony whose ancestors settled here 
in the thirteenth century, through Princess St. 
Elizabeth of Hungary, who was married to Prince 
Louis of Thuringia.* The people have been granted 
special privileges for the preservation of their 
ancient rights, and they were always ruled by a 
comes of their own. 

The Thuringians established sixteen flourishing 
free cities, and out of these thirteen were pawned by 
King Sigismund to Ladislaus Jagellon, the King of 
Poland, and it was only in the time of Maria Theresia, 
during the division of Poland, that they were incor- 
porated with Hungary. Many of their privileges 
have been taken away ; nevertheless they still main- 
tain the right of self-administration. 

Of course the Poles have left many traces behind, 
and the Polish language is generally understood. 

The Thuringians speak Hungarian as well as 
German, and have for the most part adopted the 
national Hungarian costume. They are most patri- 
otic, and like to be considered more Magyar than 
the Magyars themselves. They are very industrious, 
and it is due to them that the Zips is now one of the 
most flourishing districts of the Hungarian kingdom. 

* Most Hungarian historians refer to the Zips people as 
having settled in Hungary as early as the twelfth century, in 
the rule of Bela II. (1131-1141), but the Thuringians them- 
selves declare that their ancestors only arrived here in the reign 
of Andrew II. (1205-1235). 











Walking along the quaint but beautiful streets 
of L6cse, Kesmark and Igld, which cities were founded 
by them, and looking at the mediaeval buildings, and 
the good people who have preserved throughout so 
many centuries their picturesque costume and the 
dialect of their ancient home, one is reminded of 
Thuringia of old and the Landgraves of Swabia, 
associated with St. Elizabeth of Hungary. 


Whilst on this fascinating subject it is very 
interesting to refer here briefly to the life of St. 
Elizabeth, who was so closely connected with both 
the paternal and maternal ancestors of Her Majesty's 
father, the late Duke of Teck. Her life was a life 
of romances, a life full of noble self-denial and 
deprivation, which for centuries has supplied a 
favourite theme for poets, composers, and painters. 

The romance of her childhood and the sad story 
of her life is admirably related in Count Montalem- 
bert's " Life of St. Elizabeth," so ably translated 
by Mary Hackett and published by James Duffy 
and Co., Dublin. 

It happened in the year 1206 that Duke Hermann, 
the powerful and renowned Landgrave of Thuringia, 
being at his castle at Wartburg, situated on a height 
above the town of Eisenach, assembled at his Court 
six of the most renowned poets of Germany. 

A violent rivalry was soon declared between the 
five poets of noble birth and Heinrich Schreiber, 



who was at least their equal in talent and popularity. 
Tradition accuses them of having sought his life, 
and relates that one day the five rushed upon him 
and would have killed him, but that he escaped and 
took refuge with the Duchess Sophia, who hid him 
under the folds of her mantle. When this occurred 
the duke was engaged in hunting. 

To put an end to their differences, they agreed 
to meet in a public and final combat before the 
duke and his Court ; they also required the presence 
of the executioner, rope in hand, and he was to hang, 
during the sitting of the assembly, him whose verses 
should be declared inferior to those of his rivals, 
thus showing that in their eyes glory and life were 
inseparable. The duke consented, and himself pre- 
sided at this solemn strife, the fame whereof was 
spread throughout Germany, and at which assembled 
a crowd of knights and nobles. 

The combatants sung by turns, and in the most 
varied forms, the eulogiums of their favourite 
princes, and the great mysteries of religion. The 
songs are still preserved under the title of " The War 
of Wartburg." 

As it was impossible to decide the merits of the 
rival minstrels, it was agreed that Heinrich D'Ofter- 
dingen should set out for Transylvania, there to 
seek the renowned master, Klingsohr, so celebrated 
for his knowledge of the seven liberal arts, and for 
his proficiency in astronomy and necromancy. 

Klingsohr, being arrived at Eisenach, sojourned 
at the hostel of Henry Hellgref, at the left side of 
St. George's Gate, and descended on the evening of his 



arrival into the garden of his host, wherein were 
several of the nobles of Hesse and Thuringia, come 
expressly to visit him ; there were also officers of 
the ducal Court, and a number of honest townsmen 
of Eisenach, who, according to ancient and still- 
existing custom in Germany, came there to drink 
the evening cup. These good people surrounded the 
sage, and asked him to tell them something new, and 
after contemplating the stars for a long time, he 
said at length, " I shall tell you something both new 
and joyous. I see a beautiful star rising in Hungary, 
the rays of which extend to Marburg, and from 
Marburg all over the world. Know even that on 
this night there is born to my lord, the King of 
Hungary, a daughter, who shall be named Elizabeth. 
She shall be given in marriage to the son of your 
prince, who shall become a saint, and her sanctity 
shall rejoice and console all Christendom." 

The bystanders heard these words with great 
joy, and next morning the knights returned to Wart- 
burg to tell the news to the Landgrave, whom they 
met as they were going to mass. It was a matter 
of surprise to the prince and to the whole Court, and, 
calling for his horse, the Landgrave went with a 
numerous escort to visit Klingsohr, and to entreat 
him to return with him to Wartburg. 

The Landgrave made him dine at the royal table, 
and after the repast they conversed for a long time. 
Hermann, whose paternal anxiety was already 
awakened, asked him many questions relative to the 
affairs of Hungary. Klingsohr satisfied his curiosity 
by entering into all these details ; after which he 



engaged himself in the great cause which had brought 
him to Eisenach. He presided at the new contest 
of the poets, and succeeded in allaying the hatred 
which the noble rivals entertained against Heinrich, 
and made them publicly recognise his merit. He 
then returned to Hungary. 

Hungary at this period was ruled by King 
Andrew II. , a king famous for his piety and generosity 
to the Church and poor. Andrew's Queen was 
Gertrude of Meran, and belonged to one of the most 
illustrious houses of the Empire in the thirteenth 
century — the house of Hohenstaufen. 

One of her sisters, afterwards canonised, was 
Hedwiga, Duchess of Silesia and Poland ; another, 
Agnes, so celebrated for her beauty and misfortunes, 
was wife to Philip Augustus, King of France. 

In the year 1207, on the day and at the hour 
announced by Klingsohr, at Eisenach, Queen 
Gertrude being then at Pressburg (Pozsony) gave 
birth to a daughter, who received the name of Eliza- 
beth. The ceremonies of her baptism were conducted 
with great magnificence, the royal babe was carried 
to the church under a canopy of the richest stuffs 
that could be procured at Buda, which at that time 
was the centre of royal splendour. 

From the cradle this child gave pledges of the 
sublime destiny for which she was intended. 

Meanwhile, Duke Hermann left no means untried 
to find out if the prediction of Klingsohr had come 
to pass, and whether a princess was born in Hungary 
on the day he foretold. And when he learned of her 
birth, he conceived a most ardent desire to see the 



prediction entirely accomplished, and his young son, 
Louis, espoused to Elizabeth. 

Hermann decided to send an embassy, composed 
of lords and noble ladies, to the King of Hungary, to 
demand of him, in the name of young Louis, the 
hand of Elizabeth, and, if possible, to bring her with 
them to Thuringia. The ambassadors had at least 
thirty horses in their train, and on their way to 
Hungary were received by the greatest princes and 
prelates. Happily arrived at Pressburg, they were 
entertained with royal hospitality and a great number 
of masses were offered on the morning of their 
entrance to that city. When they opened to King 
Andrew the object of their mission, he assembled 
his council to deliberate the demand of the Duke of 

Klingsohr upheld it warmly, and, in a discourse 
which serves as a picture of Thuringia of that period, 
he showed forth the riches and power of the Land- 
grave Hermann, " drinking strong beer and eating 
good white bread." He then eulogised the personal 
character of the duke, and added that the young 
Louis appeared to him to possess all the good quali- 
ties that could be expected at his age. Queen Ger- 
trude also approved of the request of Hermann, and 
Andrew, yielding to her influence, agreed to part with 
his beloved child. But before he would permit her to 
set out, he wished to celebrate a feast in her honour, 
and having assembled all the nobles and their ladies, 
he ordered brilliant rejoicings. The games, dances, 
music, and the songs of the minstrels lasted during 
three days, after which the Thuringian ambassadors 



took leave of the king. The attendants brought with 
them the little Elizabeth, then aged four years, and, 
covering her with a silken robe, embroidered in gold, 
laid her in a cradle of massive silver, and thus gave 
her into the care of the Thuringians. 

The king said to the Lord de Varila, " I confide 
to thy knightly honour my sweetest consolation." 
The queen also came weeping and recommending her 
child to his care. The knight answered them thus : 
" I shall willingly take charge of her, and will always 
be her faithful servant." Before leaving Pressburg, 
the ambassadors received from the king and queen 
presents of immense value, some for themselves, and 
some to be brought to Duke Hermann, as the dower 
of the princess. 

Contemporary narratives enumerate in detail 
these presents, saying that never were seen in 
Thuringia things so precious and beautiful. 

The ambassadors at last set out. They had come 
with two carriages and returned with thirteen, so 
greatly had their luggage increased. King Andrew 
confided to them thirteen noble Hungarian maidens 
as companions to his daughter, all of whom Duke 
Hermann dowered and had married in Thuringia. 
The journey homewards was performed without 
delay : as soon as Duke Hermann and the Duchess 
Sophia received news of their approach and the 
success of their mission, they ordered great rejoicings 
and prayers. They then descended from Wartburg 
to Eisenach to receive the ambassadors with the 
great pomp due to the exalted ranks. 

The princess, aged four years, was solemnly 



affianced to the Duke Louis, who was then eleven. 
There were then, as at Pressburg, sumptuous 
banquets and festivals, at which poetry, the prin- 
cipal magnificence of the Court of Thuringia, shone 
with its accustomed brilliancy. Dating from this 
time Elizabeth never left him who was to be her 
husband, and whom she then called her brother. 

On Elizabeth's arrival in Thuringia the Land- 
grave selected to be her companions seven maidens 
of the most noble houses of his dominions, amongst 
whom was his own daughter Agnes ; all were about 
the age of the young princess and were brought up 
with her. 

From this tender age all her thoughts and feelings 
seemed to be centred in the desire of meriting 
Heaven, and whenever an opportunity offered, she 
went to the castle chapel, and there, lying at the 
foot of the altar, gave herself up with wonderful 
recollection to meditation and prayer. She was most 
humble and associated herself with people far below 
her rank. 

This soon awakened against her the discontent 
of the officers of the ducal house, and all the ladies of 
the Court, including Agnes, her future sister-in-law, 
were angered by this conduct, which they considered 
beneath the dignity of a royal princess. 

The death of Hermann was a misfortune to 
Elizabeth. He had always treated her as his own 
daughter, and during his life no one dared to inter- 
fere in her religious practices. 

But after his death it was no longer so. Though 
Louis, whom she looked upon as her betrothed and 



her lord, had become sovereign of the country, his 
extreme youth made him in some measure dependent 
on his mother, the Duchess Sophia, daughter of the 
celebrated Otto de Wittlesbach, Duke of Bavaria. 
This princess saw with displeasure Elizabeth's great 
devotion, and showed her discontent at it. The 
other young girls of her Court, companions to the 
two princesses, seeing that every day Elizabeth took 
less share in their games, dances, and frivolous life, 
used to repeat what they heard Agnes say, and would 
openly mock her. 

Alone in the midst of this Court, the young Duke 
Louis was not prejudiced against her ; his love for 
her increased every day, and so intense was his love 
for her that when asked by one of his courtiers if he 
really loved her and intended to marry her, his 
answer was, " Dost thou see that mountain before 
us ? Well ! if it were of pure gold from its base to its 
summit, and that all should be given to me on the 
condition of sending away my Elizabeth, I would 
never do it. Let them think or say of her what they 
please ; I say this, that I love her, and love nothing 
better in this world. I will have my Elizabeth ; 
she is dearer to me for her virtue and piety than all 
the kingdoms and riches of the earth." 

In due course Prince Louis and Elizabeth were 
married, and very beautiful are the stories told of 
their great devotion, humility and charity. In the 
terrible famine which devastated Thuringia, the tales 
told of St. Elizabeth's personal sacrifices are touching 
in the extreme. 

It was, perhaps, but fitting that in the great 



religious movements which brought about the 
Crusades, Louis of Thuringia should take a leading 
part, he determining to visit the Holy Land, but 
sad was the grief of the young couple when the 
moment came for separation. 

Returning to her lonely home, she laid aside her 
royal robes, and with a sad presentiment assumed 
the costume that she was never again to leave off — 
that of a widow's mourning. 

Elizabeth's presentiment proved, alas ! only too 
true, for Louis, arrived at Brindisi, fell sick of a fever 
which proved fatal. On his deathbed he charged 
one of the knights to go and announce his death to 
his dear Elizabeth, by bringing to her the ring he 
had shown her when parting, and which, as then 
agreed upon between them, was to be to her the 
token of all that concerned him. 

It is from this period that commences the more 
familiar and saintly incidents of St. Elizabeth's 
career. By her cruel and heartless brother-in-law, 
the Landgrave Henry the Raspen, who had usurped 
the throne which by rights belonged to Elizabeth's 
eldest son, she was driven out of her castle with her 
little children, and reduced to a state of misery. 

Duke Henry had caused a proclamation to be 
made in the city that whoever would receive the 
Duchess Elizabeth or her children would thereby 
incur his displeasure ; and with an ingratitude far 
more revolting than the cowardly baseness of the 
order, all the inhabitants of Eisenbach obeyed it. 
In vain did the unhappy Princess go, surrounded by 
her little ones, weeping and knocking at every door, 



even to the houses of those who had formerly testified 
the greatest attachment to her, but nowhere was she 

At length she came to a miserable tavern, whence 
the owner neither could nor would send her away, 
for she declared that his house was open to everyone 
and that she would remain there. 

" They have taken from me all that I had," 
said she, weeping, " now I can but pray to God ! ,r 
The innkeeper assigned as a resting-place during the 
night for herself, her children, and her maidens, a 
miserable outhouse wherein he kept his kitchen 
utensils, and where also he lodged his swine. These 
he drove out to give their place to the Duchess of 
Thuringia, the Royal Princess of Hungary. 

Some friendly persons, whose names have not 
been preserved by history, having heard of the state 
to which she was reduced, offered to take charge of 
her little ones, and she was obliged to consent to 
their removal, as it was impossible for her to provide 
them with sufficient sustenance. 

Her aunt, the Abbess of Babenberg, heard of 
her misery and offered her shelter. Upon the return 
of the Crusaders, Elizabeth laid her complaint before 
the knights, and through them she was restored to 
all her property, and her brother-in-law Henry asked 
for her forgiveness. Elizabeth, however, preferred 
to live a humble life, and used her fortune for the 
good of the needy and sick. 

The sufferings of Elizabeth during this unhappy 
period of her life and the sweet resignation with 
which she endured her martyrdom, belong to the 



pages of the " Legends of the Saints." St. Elizabeth, 
renouncing worldly life, retired to Marburg, and there 
assumed the habit of the Order of St. Francis. Her 
love for the poor occupied in her heart all that was 
not devoted to prayer and contemplation. She 
preferred to the pomp of this world's power, the 
humiliation of God's poor people, and associated 
herself with them as much as possible by the practice 
of voluntary poverty. 

Many are the stories told of the great poverty 
in which she lived ; she sold all the jewels sent her 
by her relatives in Hungary, and distributed among 
the poor all her property, and finally, worn out by 
her good works, she died at the early age of twenty- 
four, or, as her biographer, Montalembert, poetically 
puts it, " She was summoned to the eternal wedding- 
feast" (1231). 

The fame of her life and death spread far and 
wide ; miracles were worked through her inter- 
cession, and thousands of pilgrims for generations 
visited her holy shrine at Marburg, and placed upon 
it costly offerings. But Elizabeth, who was not 
given peace in this world, was also destined to be 
pursued by the persecutors of her family in her 
grave, for the story is a well-known one how, in the 
middle of the sixteenth century, the Landgrave 
Philip of Hesse, belonging to the same stock as did 
the Dukes of Wiirtemberg, and himself a direct 
descendant of St. Elizabeth, desecrated her shrine in 
his religious zeal for the new Reformed faith. 
According to Montalembert' s version, the Landgrave's 
object was to become possessed of the precious relics 



which were placed in her shrine, and which legend 
claimed to represent fabulous wealth. For the sake 
of that dynasty which has supplied so many illus- 
trious ancestors and descendants, let us hope that 
the following account of Montalembert may have 
been somewhat inspired by religious prejudice, 
though there can be no denial of the desecration of 
her shrine by her descendant. In accordance with 
Montalembert' s version, the Landgrave sent for the 
blacksmiths to bring their tools that they might 
force open her tomb. The necessary tools were soon 
brought, and when the workmen had made the 
breach, the Prince cried out : " Oh, oh ! Thank 
God, here, then, are the relics of St. Elizabeth ! 
Behold my bones and her bones ! Come hither, 
behold my grandmama ! " Then this worthy descen- 
dant of a saint, turning to the guardian of her grave, 
said, "It is very heavy, my lord commander ; I 
would be glad if it were full of crown pieces, but there 
will also be, I hope, some good old Hungarian florins." 
The shrine was opened ; the Landgrave put in his 
hand and drew forth a casket lined with red satin. 
It contained the relics of the saint. The Landgrave 
himself cut away a piece of the shrine, which he 
thought was of massive gold. He had it assayed by 
a goldsmith, and finding that it was of copper gilt, 
he cried out, " How these priests deceive people ! 
They have made this shrine of copper, and kept all 
the gold for themselves." Philip carried these 
treasures to the castle of Ziegenhayn, and under 
the pressure of the Emperor Charles V., who was 
highly incensed at this outrage, Philip had to 


Reproduced from a Painting in the Museum of Decorative Arts at Budapest 


restore to the church of Marburg the relics of the 
saint ; but they were never more placed in the 
shrine, and they were completely dispersed. One of 
the arms was sent to Hungary, other portions 
preserved at Vienna, Cologne, and elsewhere. But 
Philip is not the only descendant who was accused 
of making capital of the remains of his ancestor, 
for in 1833 the Count de Boss-Waldeck possessed 
one of the saint's arms, which he offered for sale 
to several sovereigns who reckoned her amongst their 
ancestors, but without being able to find a purchaser. 

The White Lady of Lc5cse 

But not only St. Elizabeth, everything in the Zips 
reminds one of the former Swabia ; in fact, curiously 
enough, as in Swabia, there is also a story of the 
White Lady, but with this difference, that unlike her 
namesake in Swabia, she could not prove her 
descent from His Satanic Majesty. The White 
Lady of Locse was a different kind of demon alto- 
gether. She belonged to the earthly demons, who 
like to enslave everyone who comes within the spell 
of their magic and alluring eyes. Many were those 
who lost their hearts to her, and amongst these 
Ferencz Rakoczy II. accused one of his generals, 
Andrassy, that whilst he was gazing into the 
bewitching eyes of the White Lady, she managed 
to snatch the key of the fort from his pocket, and 
subsequently opened the gates to the besieging 
German forces, the consequence of which led to 
Rakoczy' s defeat. 

225 q 


Though Jokai in his romance of "The White 
Lady" upholds Rdkoczy's views, history has 
absolved her of this accusation, and romancers 
suggest that Andrassy was also gazing into the pretty 
eyes of other ladies, so there is no evidence that it 
was the White Lady of Lrjcse who managed to get 
possession of the keys of the fort. The only mys- 
terious point in connection with " the White Lady " 
is that a century and a half later, some time before 
the great national war, she was seen standing in 
a threatening attitude at one of the windows of the 
castle tower, as if she was about to avenge herself 
for this accusation. This apparition, curiously 
enough, coincided with the discovery of her portrait 
at the very window at which she appeared. 


Northern Hungary 

We now take our departure from these enchanted 
surroundings on our way backward. 

Many are the beautiful places that attract us on 
our way to Kassa, and more still are those that we 
should like to visit in the interior of the land. The 
romantic castle of Murany, elsewhere referred to, 
and those of Csetek and Rozsnyo and Krasznahorka, 
the cradle home of the great Andrassy family, are all 
here close by. 

At Gomor one of the greatest wonders on earth 
is to be seen. It is the stalactite cave of Aggtelek, 
with its many cells, where prehistoric remains have 
been found, together with cooking utensils, which 
prove that the people in those days practised canni- 
balism. Many other relics of the Stone and Bronze 
Period have been brought to light here. 

On the left bank of our route is situated the 
county of Saros, full of historical associations with 
the great hero, Francis Rakoczy. At the ancient city 
of Eperjes, we are reminded of the cruel and harsh 
days of the seventeenth century, when license was 
given to Caraffa, the Austrian general, to erect a 
scaffold, and many of the bravest sons of Hungary 
were hung without being given a chance of a trial. 
Here also, and in the vicinity of the adjoining town 
of Bartfa, we come across many interesting relics, 

227 q 2 


and some connected with that great hero Thokoli, 
and his stepson Francis Rakoczy II., and the once 
celebrated hundred lime-trees under which Rakoczy 
used to sign his proclamations are situated near the 
latter place. It was also here in this county where 
Rakoczy was once captured, and whence he finally 
left the country. 

Numerous are the castles and ruins which remind 
one of his former might and power, and many are 
the stories related how often he eluded capture by 
his German pursuers, by having the shoes of his horses 
turned the wrong way, and escaping through the 
many subterranean passages which connected his 
numerous castles scattered over an immense tract 
of country ; how all of a sudden he would appear 
when his enemies least expected him, and capture 
their position. 

The Rak6czy March 

It will be of interest here to state how the 
famous Rakoczy March was composed in honour 
of that hero. The effect that this march had upon 
the people was magical ; and at the first note 
thousands of his followers would collect under his 
banner, yet no one knew who composed the music. 

Just as Rakoczy, after his defeat and pursuit 
by his enemies, was about to cross the frontier for 
Poland, he and his followers were attracted by the 
sound of the Rakoczy March played on the road by 
a gipsy maiden in a sad and melancholy tone and 
with a pathos with which it had never been played 



before. He suddenly stopped and beckoned the 
girl to approach, and said, " Who taught you, gipsy, 
to play the march better than I have ever heard it 
before ? " 

The gipsy girl approached timidly, and with her 
face crimson with blushes, her eyes full of fire, 
answered with great passion, " No one has taught 
me to play it. It is I who taught others to do so." 

" What ! Can this be true ? Is it you, then, who 
composed this march which has inspired my men in 
so many victories ? " 

8 Yes, sire," replied the girl. " It is I, Gipsy 
Czinka Panna, who composed the march " ; but with 
tears in her eyes she exclaimed, " I will never play 
it any more ; the stars tell me that he in whose 
honour I composed it will never see the soil of his 
native land again ; " and, saying this, she threw aside 
with passion her fiddle, and the poor girl, who evi- 
dently, like many others of her sex, was captivated 
by the heroism and personal charm of Rakoczy, fell 
sobbing to the ground. Rakoczy tenderly raised her 
up, and saying, " Let this be my gratitude to you," 
impressed a kiss upon her brow. 

" Go on, play the air once more, that its sweet 
tune may accompany me across the border in my 

The pursuers of Rakoczy were now close upon 
the fugitives. Rakoczy, once more turning back to 
take leave of his native country, and once more 
thanking the gipsy maiden whose march had given 
so much inspiration to patriotism, said, " Play away, 
Czinka Panna, your march, for as long as it will be 



heard in Hungary it will inspire love and freedom 
for the country," and he and his horsemen dis- 
appeared from sight. 

Czinka Panna read the stars only too well for 
Rakoczy, as he never saw his native land again, but 
the Rakoczy March is still played, and no true Hun- 
garian can listen to its strains without being roused 
to patriotic enthusiasm for the native country. 


We are now at the beautiful city of Kassa, the 
capital of Upper Hungary, and at the same time 
of the county of Aba-Uj-Torna, named after the 
Aba family, who built here a great fortified castle in 
1038, the most important in Upper Hungary. In the 
twelfth century it passed into the hands of Mate 
Csak, who seized so many estates from the family 
during the absence of its chief in the Crusades. Many 
relics all through this beautiful county, the finest in 
Hungary, serve to remind us of the power and glory 
of this great House, and its inhabitants are proud 
that its name should be derived from one of the 
bravest of the seven dukes who accompanied Arpad 
during his historic conquest of Hungary. 

Kassa itself — which is named the Little Paris — 
is a very interesting town and has been the scene of 
many remarkable events. Its close proximity to 
Poland made it in ancient days the meeting-place 
between the kings of Hungary and those of Poland, 
and the members of the House of Aba, who, as we 
have already previously shown, were closely con- 




nected with both royal Houses. Louis the Great of 
Hungary, under whom Poland was united with 
Hungary, held his Assembly at Kassa in 1374, and 
his daughter Hedwiga, who afterwards became 
Queen of Poland, was greatly attached to the place 
and kept up a correspondence with her relations in 
the county. Her sister, Queen Maria, also visited 
the town with her husband, King Sigismund (also 
Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire), and the pre- 
sence of the latter monarch, who was always hard 
up, must have become a nuisance to the Aba family, 
who, as the relations of his wife, in the ordinary way 
would have been his first victims. However, the 
family was rich enough, and Sigismund, who pawned 
several of his provinces to Poland and sold Branden- 
burg to the Hohenzollerns for a mere song (and thus 
laid the foundation of the future greatness of the 
Hohenzollern family), was satisfied with trifles. 

But Sigismund was not the only king who ran 
short of money at Kassa. Another king, and the 
greatest that ever sat on the Hungarian throne, King 
Matthias Corvinus, was in the same trouble, and 
when he visited Kassa with his queen, in 1478, he 
had to borrow two florins from the town in order 
that he should be able to return to Buda in a kingly 
style {more regio). Happy times were those ! 

In the seventeenth century the town passed into 
the hands of the Transylvanian princes, and many 
were the charters which were granted here to the 
Rhedey family for their bravery in the defence of the 

As to variety of nationalities, Kassa perhaps 



takes the lead in Hungary, it being inhabited by 
Hungarians, Slovaks, and Poles, and also the Thurin- 
gians whose acquaintance we have made in the Zips. 
The town boasts one of the finest cathedrals in the 
country, which was commenced in the early part of 
the thirteenth century by the Thuringians, in honour 
of St. Elizabeth of Hungary. 

The cathedral was completed by her namesake 
Elizabeth, the Queen of Poland, who was a Hungarian 

It is interesting to note that in connection with 
Kassa, in the year 1521 a certain John Knox, an 
English preacher, came to that town and was the 
first to introduce the Lutheran religion. Whether 
John Knox had any connection with the family of 
the great reformer, it is, of course, impossible to say, 
though the date might lead one to believe this was 
the case. At Kassa one of the most famous prelates 
of Hungary, Bishop Bubics, resided for many years, 
until he died recently. It was he who restored the 
cathedral. He was one of the greatest patrons of 
Hungarian art, and presented a magnificent collec- 
tion of pictures and rare objets (Part to the National 
Museum. He was one of the first to discover the 
great artistic talent of the now famous Hungarian 
painter, Philip Laszlo, to whom he became greatly 
attached, and many are the pictures that Philip 
Laszlo painted at the Bishop's beautiful palace at 
Kassa and also at his town residence at Budapest. 
The Bishop took a paternal interest in his career 
and shared his triumphs with the greatest pride. 

Life at Kassa is very pleasant. It is the rendez- 



vous of the nobility of Upper Hungary and, as such, 
a great deal of gaiety is going on. On Sundays and 
market-days it is quite a sight to see the mixture of 
Hungarians, Slovaks (who dress very neatly and 
smartly here), Poles, and Germans, attired in their 
respective national costumes, walking up and down 
the public parks to the strains of a gipsy band. 




The North-East of Hungary 

From Kassa we proceed further to what is called 
the North-East of Hungary, and we reach in no time 
S. A. Ujhely, the capital of Zempl^n, so famous for 
having given birth to Hungary's greatest sons, for 
here in this country, with which the history of Her 
Majesty's Hungarian ancestors is so interwoven, were 
born Bocskay and Francis Rakoczy II., and here 
also in the last century the great patriot Louis 
Kossuth and Count Julius Andrassy, Hungary's 
greatest statesman, first saw the light. There are 
other reasons also of which the country has reason 
to be proud, for here at S. A. Ujhely and in the 
adjoining towns of Mad, Szerencs, and Tokaj, the 
best of Hungarian wines are grown, and under the 
name of Tokaj have been known and cherished 
throughout the civilised world for centuries and 
centuries. A genuine bottle of Tokaj is one of the 
greatest luxuries, and is priceless, and seldom finds 
its way to other countries. The Emperor-King owns 
vineyards in the district, and reserves the best brands 
for gifts to his sovereign brothers. Count Elemer 
Lonyay, the husband of Princess Stephanie, who 
has a large estate and a beautiful castle at Bodrog 
Olaszi, in the county of Zemplen, is one of the largest 
wine-growers, and the quality of wines produced 
there is specially prized, though they hardly ever go 
out of the family. 


Hungarian Lowlands 


There are many interesting towns in this county, 
and amongst the numerous castles owned all over 
Hungary by Francis Rakoczy II., the one at Saros 
Patak was his favourite residence. There is a very 
large Protestant college in that town which was 
endowed by the Rakoczy family prior to their being 
forced by the Vienna Court to become Catholics. 

S. A. Ujhely itself is a picturesque town situated 
at the foot of three tent-shaped hills, which gave the 
name to the town, and very much resemble in 
appearance the Pyramids, but instead of the vast 
barren desert, have as their backgrounds the smiling 
vineyards that render this region so famous. During 
the vintage the entire district teems with people 
from all parts of the world, and it is a grand sight 
to see the vintage and the great variety of peasants 
in their gay national garb, making merry to the 
accompaniment of the native gipsy music, whose 
strange and melodious songs find an echo in the 
hills around. 


Leaving the last slopes of the Carpathian Moun- 
tains, we cross a portion of flat land only to gain the 
Carpathians again at Ungvar, which town played an 
important part in the history of Her Majesty's 
ancestors, for Ungvar was one of the first places that 
Arpad and the seven dukes who accompanied him 
conquered at the time of their invasion of Hungary, 
and the town and River Ung took their name from 
the Hungarian race, Ungvar (fort of Ung). It is a 
picturesque place, and its castle and beautiful 



bishop's palace attract attention immediately we 
catch a glimpse of the town. In the many wars in 
which Hungary was plunged during the thousand 
years of its existence as a State, Ungvar has had 
its full share. The once famous castle is now a prison. 
The inhabitants of the town are principally Hun- 
garians, Ruthenians, some Poles, and a variety of 
other nationalities. 


Interesting, however, as Ungvar is from an historical 
point of view, it is entirely eclipsed by the neigh- 
bouring city of Munkacs, which prides itself on 
having been the first town that the Hungarians con- 
quered after leaving their original home in the Ural 
Mountains and wandering for a long time across the 
Khirghizian Steppes and the heights of the Caucasian 
Mountains in quest of the cherished land, which they 
at last reached. The Magyars had no easy task in 
taking the place, for the once powerful kingdom of 
the Huns was now divided between several rulers. 
Zalan was the prince of the Slavs and Bulgars, and 
his territory stretched between the Danube and the 
Tisza, right to the Carpathian Mountains. Memrod 
was master of the territory along the Rivers Tisza 
(Theiss), Maros, and Szamos. Gelon was prince of 
the Wallachians in Transylvania ; Gad was the ruler 
of the country between the Rivers Maros and Szamos. 
On the other side of the Danube there were Frankish 
settlements, whilst Svatopluk, the mightiest of all, 
was the King of Great Moravia. 



Many were the onslaughts of the Magyars against 
the fortified positions held by the combined forces 
before Munkacs, and brave indeed was the defence, 
but Arpad vowed by the sword of Attila, which 
tradition holds was handed down to the Magyars and 
he as their leader carried, that the place should sur- 
render, and so it did. Kissing the soil of the land, he 
assembled round him the seven dukes, who named 
the place Munkacs, signifying in Hungarian that it 
involved a great difficulty in taking it. 

It was also at Munkacs that the different princes, 
except Zalan, offered their submission to Arpad, and 
accepted the rule of the Magyars over their country. 
This historic episode, the greatest in the history of 
the Hungarian kingdom, has been immortalised by 
the brush of Hungary's greatest painter, Michael 
Munkacsy, who was a native of Munkacs. In this 
masterpiece we see the former chief of Hungary 
paying homage to Arpad and the seven dukes, 
amongst whom a conspicuous place is given to Duke 
Ede, the ancestor of Her Majesty. 

The Zalan Legend 

There is a very pretty legend how Arpad became 
possessed of Zalan' s lands. After the submission 
of the princes who ruled Hungary, except the land 
of Zalan, Arpad sent his emissaries to the former 
prince with the request to surrender to him the 
country of the Huns, and at the same time sent him 
presents of horses, camels, and slaves, in return for 
which he asked a piece of grass from his country, and 



a bottle of water from the Danube, as he wanted to 
see if the land was as green as that in Asia ; and 
wished to taste if the water was as sweet as that of 
the river Don. Arpad's envoys were well received, 
and Zalan sent him what he asked for, but made 
no definite promise of surrendering the country. 
Arpad, however, on receipt of the news immediately 
advanced towards Zalan, and showing to him 
the gifts that he had sent him, said to the prince, 
" Behold, this is the emblem that you have sold me 
the land all along the Danube for those presents." 
Zalan, seeing that he had no chance of resistance 
against Arpad's brave army, gave his submission. 
After this final victory the Magyars held their first 
assembly on the hills of Puszta-Szer, where Arpad 
was proclaimed Hereditary Duke of Hungary. The 
Seven Dukes, however, who were of the same blood 
as himself were, by special agreement, to share the 
ownership of the land, which was divided into eight 
portions, Arpad taking the largest share. It was in 
this way that Duke Ede, one of the bravest of the 
dukes, became possessed of such a vast extent of 
territory, the major portion of which, in centuries to 
come, was lost by his descendants for no other reason 
than because they bravely fought for that soil which 
their ancestors had conquered. Such is the reward 
of Fate ! 

Ilona Zrinyi, Hungary's Heroine 

It will, perhaps, be of interest to refer here at 
greater length to this most popular female figure in 
the history of Hungary, to whom we have often 



referred, especially as a family connection exists 
between her and that of the ancestors of Her Majesty 
Queen Mary. 

In Ilona Zrinyi were combined all the qualities 
which entitle her to be regarded as an ideal of woman- 
hood ; not only was she handsome, clever and good- 
hearted, but in every respect a type of a true heroine. 
She has formed a favourite subject for the national 
poets, and is always held up as an example for 
mothers and daughters. 

Ilona Zrinyi came from a very old stock. She 
was the daughter of Peter Zrinyi, the great poet and 
soldier, who took part in the revolutionary plot 
organised by the Palatine Wesselenyi, already referred 
to, and a niece of Miklos Zrinyi, the hero of Szigetvar, 
the very name of which sends a thrill of patriotism 
through the heart of every true Hungarian, for 
here, in 1566, the great hero Miklos Zrinyi held out 
heroically with a small body of 2,500 men against a 
mighty force of 90,000 of Suleiman's men. Fighting 
desperately till his number was reduced to 300 men, 
and seeing that there was no chance of further resist- 
ance, he and his comrades arrayed themselves in 
holiday attire, and with drawn swords opened the 
gates and then blew up the fort, preferring to die in 
this way rather than surrender. 

Ilona married, firstly, Ferencz Rakoczy I., by 
whom she became mother of Ferencz Rakoczy II. 
After her husband's death she married Emeric Thokoli, 
who subsequently, aided by the Sultan, led a revolt 
against the King of Hungary, in which she herself 
took a prominent part. 



When the Sultan concluded peace with the 
Emperor of Germany he had to renounce his protege, 
who had to fight his own wars ; nay, it even went 
so far as this, that at one time Thokoli was captured 
by the Pasha of Nagy Varad, and would have been 
delivered up to the Emperor had it not been for the 
intervention of his wife, who wrote a most reproach- 
ful letter to the Grand Vizier. But Ilona Zrinyi could 
not only write letters, she could fight better still ; 
for whilst her husband had to take refuge in Servia 
she defended the fort of Munkacs for over three 
years against the German troops, who on various 
occasions gave up the bombardment. Finally, the 
fort was taken by treachery. Ilona and her children 
were taken prisoners to Vienna, and it was only in 
the year 1690, as we have stated, that she and 
her children gained their liberty, and upon the ulti- 
mate defeat of her husband emigrated with him to 
Turkey, where they found their final resting-place. 

From Munkacs we visit the adjoining counties of 
Bereg and Ugocsa and Maramaros, and here again 
every inch of the ground is associated with the House 
of Rhedey, who, together with the Lonyays — the 
ancestors of Count Elemer Lonyay — have for cen- 
turies shared between them the honour of being at 
the head of these historic counties. Situated as their 
counties do on the threshold between Hungary and 
Poland on the one hand, and Roumania and Tran- 
sylvania on the other, sufficient scope was provided 
to the illustrious scions of these Houses, to share 
their glory and to prove their valour on the field of 



/ A • s 


1.4 1 uli ,1.1 


fi h** 




Our road now leads us across a portion of the 
Lowlands studded with extensive orchards and vine- 
yards, but at Beregszasz, the capital of the county 
of Bereg, the road suddenly turns towards the 
Carpathian Mountains, and here we stand before the 
famous fort of Huszt, where the ancestors of Her 
Majesty, the Rhedeys, rendered themselves immortal 
and became its masters. Thence proceeding along 
romantic mountain scenery and pastoral valleys 
where the Tisza is struggling at the beginning of her 
long and glorious career, we finally reach Maramaros- 
Sziget, the capital of the county of Maramaros. 


This is a very picturesque old town, situated on 
an island formed by the Rivers Tisza and Iza, and 
surrounded by the snow-crowned Alps, which bears 
favourable comparison with the Tatra. There are 
several castles belonging to the Bethlens, Teleki, and 
other well-known families. 

The people of Maramaros Sziget and the country 
consist principally of Russian Slavs, Wallachians, 
Germans, and Hungarians, and this mixture of 
peoples in their respective national costumes proves 
a most interesting sight to the stranger. The Rus- 
sians, who next to the Wallachians form the larger 
portion of the population, emigrated here in the time 
of King Louis the Great of Hungary. This country, 
which, by its natural position, surrounded as it is by 
the high Alps, forms the frontier between Tran- 
sylvania and Poland, was, like Transylvania, in- 

241 r 


habited in the time of the Hungarian conquest by 
Daco-Romans, who were left in full liberty by the 
Hungarians, and were allowed to have their own 
Waiwode, and a ruling Count with dynastic rights. 
The surrounding snow-clad mountains are covered 
with ancient forests of great extent, and teeming 
with big game and wild animals of all sorts, including 
bears and boars. The celebrated salt-mine of Szlatina 
is situated within half-an-hour of Sziget, in the most 
picturesque part of the Alps and along the Tisza 
river. This mine produces a tremendous quantity 
of salt and is a State monopoly. Like the mine in 
the Salzkammergut, its interior offers a wonderful 
sight which can be explored by visitors. It is also 
not far from Sziget that Hungary's greatest and 
mightiest river — the Tisza (Theiss) — springs, forming 
in its birth a magnificent waterfall. There is a story 
told about the origin of the Tisza, which runs as 
follows : — 

The Tisza and Iza Legends 

Many and many a generation ago, when the Mara- 
maros still belonged to Attila, there were two forts 
in the Alps. In one lived Tisza, a handsome young 
warrior, and in the other Iza, a pretty young widow. 
Tisza was in love with the daughter of a shepherd, 
whom he wished to espouse, but Iza, who was 
enamoured of him, did everything to prevent the 
marriage, and managed to imprison the girl in under- 
ground cells. Tisza, who did not know her where- 
abouts, became quite desolate, and finally, giving 
her up as lost, he listened to the allurements of Iza, 



whom he married. But very soon afterwards, when 
he went to the battle-field, she became unfaithful 
and ran away from him. On his return home he was 
met by the Fairy King of the Alps, who apprised him 
of the fact, and told him the shepherdess maiden yet 
lived. He received the news with mingled joy and 
sorrow and was turned into a stone. From this 
springs the River Tisza. The Fairy King punished 
Iza in the same manner, and the spot where she is 
supposed to have been turned into stone is the birth- 
place of the Iza. Both rivers embrace each other at 

The Maramaros boast of heroic deeds having been 
enacted upon its soil, for in 1717 a Tartar horde 
invaded the country, and at Borsa they were driven 
back by men and women into a narrow mountain 
pass, from whence they could not escape. Thousands 
and thousands were slaughtered, whose bodies now 
form small hills, while 20,000 were thrown into the 
River Vizso, and the water was so tainted that it 
could not be used for a year. The people of Borsa 
have still many Tartar relics left, amongst others 
the sword and saddle of the slaughtered Khan. 

Having reached the extreme limit of north-east 
Hungary, we once more renew our acquaintance with 
the plains, and, taking a slight detour, make our way 
back through the county of Szatmar, with the capital 
of which many historic incidents are associated, and 
the Rhedeys, as its earliest feudal lords, had a great 
share in its history. In our genealogical sketch of 
the family it will be seen that the first member of 
the house of Aba, who is known to have assumed the 

243 r 2 


name of Rhedey, was lord-lieutenant of the county 
of Szatmar at the end of the twelfth century. Szat- 
mar, the capital of the country, is a beautiful city, 
and is famed for the treaty which was signed here 
between the Emperor and the former adherents of 
Rakoczy, whereby that great hero became an exile. 
The Karolyi family own great possessions in this 
county, and the town of Nagy Karoly was Inamed 
after them. 

From here we take a northerly direction through 
the country of Szabolcs, a land of paradise, where 
the early ancestors of Her Majesty saw for the first 
time the beautiful Hungarian plains, the memory 
of which they preserved in their legends, and claimed 
as an inheritance from the Huns. 

The county of Szabolcs was once the ancient 
seat of the now extinct family of the Bathorys, and 
is still the home of the great Forgach and Vay 
families. The latter have been associated with 
Her Majesty's ancestors for centuries by constant 
intermarriages. The family, who can trace their 
descent from the ninth century, have since then 
given many eminent men to the country, and 
in Transylvania they were intimately associated 
with the Rhedey, Bethlen and Rakoczy regime. 
One of the members, Count Peter Vay, is well known 
in England. He is one of the most gifted men in 
Hungary, and has had a very interesting career. 
He was originally destined for a diplomatic career, 
and was accredited to the different Courts, where 
he became most popular. He, however, had a 
great liking for the Church, and in due course 



took holy orders, and was nominated Pronotary 
Apostolic by the Papal Court, and formed a part of 
the Papal mission at Queen Victoria's Jubilee cele- 
bration. He then obtained leave to visit Asia, having 
been one of the first to travel on the Manchurian 
railway, and penetrated to the interior of Man- 
churia and Korea with a view to improve the con- 
dition of the people. All his travels were keenly 
followed by the Czar of Russia, who furnished him 
with special introductions. Upon his return from 
these countries he gave a most interesting lecture 
on the peoples of the countries he had visited, before 
the Royal Society of London, and his work on the 
same subject, published in English, is highly prized. 
He also visited America in order to preach among 
the Hungarian emigrants and to encourage them to 
preserve a patriotic spirit. More recently Count 
Vay de Vay has been nominated to the high post of 
Lord Abbot of one of the great monasteries. He is 
a cousin to Count Elemer de Lonyay, husband of 
Princess Stephanie, who, like him, has inherited the 
patriotic spirit and noble qualities of their ancestors. 
Winding our way in the direction of Budapest, 
before reaching the capital we visit the county of 
Heves, the veritable land of the Rhedeys, where their 
ancestors established their fame on the field of battle, 
and became known for all time in the history of 




The Cradle Home of the Rhedeys, 

Immediately we enter this beautiful county we 
are reminded at every step of the family of Rhedey. 

The history of the county itself and its relations 
to the Rhedey family is very interesting. After the 
conquest of Hungary by Arpad, the entire county 
was given to the family of Duke Ede, and a certain 
Pata, the grandson of Ede, who was the grandfather 
of Samuel Aba, laid the foundation to the many 
towns and villages in the county. It was at that time 
that were built the villages of Rede, Bathor, Saar, 
and Lelesz, which, together with the vast territory 
around it, formed the entire property of the Rhedeys, 
Bathorys, and other families named. 

Samuel Aba founded here, at the foot of the Matra 
Mountains, the once famous Abbey of Saar referred 
to in the earlier part of the work, and after his tragic 
death, was buried here. During the twelfth century 
a number of other monasteries belonging to the 
Cistercian Order were built on the lands of the 
Rhedeys ; and in the thirteenth century, in another 
portion of their estates, where once the pagans used 
to worship, a Carthusian monastery was raised. 
During the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries the 
country was cruelly exposed to the inroads of roving 
Tartars, and other hordes who devastated the 


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country, and many of its towns and villages were 
destroyed and had to be rebuilt. This went on 
till the sixteenth century, when a more formidable 
enemy made its appearance in Hungary in the 
person of the Turks. 

From this moment the Rhedeys did not rest 
their swords for a single day, and every inch of the 
soil in the county of Heves and in the adjoining 
Nograd has a story to tell of their heroism. 

In an earlier part of this work has been described 
how Ferencz I. and the other members of the family 
fought at Eger and with what valour Ferencz II. 
held the fort of Fiilek. In the heroic defence of 
Eger by Dobo, which made him famous for all 
time, the Rhedeys had a great share, and greater 
still was their fame to be when the family in the 
sixteenth century left their cradle home in Hungary 
for Transylvania. 

As time went on the vast family property in the 
county of Heves, which principally originally belonged 
to the Rhedey family, became, by grant or marriage, 
divided amongst the families of Thokoli, Losonczy, 
Rakoczy, Kohary, Karolyi, Nyari, Perenyi, 
Homonna, and Orczy (the ancestors of the brilliant 
authoress, Baroness d' Orczy), all of whom played a 
very leading part in the history of the country, but 
none of them have left a greater name in the history 
of the county of Heves than the Rhedeys. 

Of the two sister villages of Rede, whence the 
family sprang, only Nagy Rede is still in existence, 
but Kis Rede, which for centuries was the seat of 
the family whilst still in Hungary, has been entirely 



destroyed by the many wars, and there is no vestige 
or sign of its former importance. The site of the once 
ancient family home of the Rhedeys is now a puszta, 
or farm, on the ground of which stands the little 
church, a view of which is published here. But 
though the Rhedeys have for more than four cen- 
turies left their native land, their memory is still 
sacredly guarded. Every mountain and valley in the 
district bears the name of the family. As illustrating 
how revered is their memory, it will be interesting 
to note that the writer has it on the authority of the 
notary of Nagy Rede that a certain village black- 
smith in the place, whose remote ancestors were in 
the employ of the Rhedey family, shows with pride 
some relics given by the Rhedeys to his ancestors, 
which they would not part with at any price, in spite 
of their many vicissitudes. The country all round 
here is picturesque in the extreme, and the soil 
is very fertile. It has furnished the theme to 
Baroness d'Orczy's well-known novel, " A Son of 
the Soil." 


There are many interesting places in the county 
of Heves and the adjoining county of Ndgrad, and 
numerous are its rugged mountains and vine-clad 
hills, down which numberless streams and rivers 
hasten. But in this volume reference can only be 
made to Eger, famous for its beautiful women and 
its red wine, but more famous still for its heroic 
defence by Dobo and the Rhedeys, to which refer- 
ence has already been made. So fierce and so deter- 


-1 . 1 — 


^"TM II 1 - ***■ 

, V'| 


Which the Rhedeys so heroically defended against the Turks 


mined was the defence of the little garrison, faced 
by an overwhelming enemy, the Turks, that the 
women of Eger had to come to the rescue of the 
defenders, and of this not only the people of Eger, 
but the whole of Hungary is justly proud. 

Eger is an important centre, and is the seat of an 
archbishopric, and its imposing palace is one of the 
sights of the town. 

From here we leave the hilly districts, and cutting 
through the vast plains near Hatvan, and passing 
at Godollo the beautiful country residence of the 
Emperor-King, which once was such a favourite 
home of the late Empress Elisabeth, we reach Buda- 
pest, the capital of Hungary, only to proceed to 
Transylvania, with which the Rhedey family have 
been so closely associated ever since they left their 
original home in Heves. 




The Heart of Hungary 

The direct route to Transylvania from Budapest 
is via Nagy Varad, but we shall take a short detour 
so as to enable us to see Debreczen, the capital of 
the great Hungarian plains, where one will gain a 
true insight into Hungarian national life and become 
acquainted with the characteristic features of the 
vast Hungarian lowlands which have been immor- 
talised by that greatest of Hungarian lyric writers, 
Alexander Pet(5fi. 

Debreczen, generally styled the Calvinist Rome, 
is one of the largest cities situated in the plains, 
and is often called the Peasant Capital, it being a 
typical Hungarian town. It has been gradually 
formed from several villages which have been ex- 
tended from time to time. There is a handsome 
Calvinist church, built in the Renaissance style, 
which is the largest one of its kind in the country. 

Unlike other towns in Hungary, the people of 
Debreczen belong entirely to the middle class, and, 
according to their idea, to be a citizen of Debreczen 
is as good as being a magnate of any other part. It 
is no wonder, therefore, that it is the home of the 

In 1849, when the National Hungarian Assembly 
was menaced by the approach of the Austrian troops, 
the Diet was adjourned at Debreczen, and met in 



the Calvinist chapel belonging to the college. It was 
there, on the memorable day of the 14th April, that 
Louis Kossuth made the proclamation that, owing 
to the ill-treatment of Hungary, the House of Habs- 
burg had lost all rights and claim to the crown of 
St. Stephen, and proclaimed Hungary as an inde- 
pendent State, and the entire Assembly then 
adjourned to the great Calvinist church to solemnise 
the event. Debreczen has given birth to the great 
poet, Csokonai, whose splendid statue adorns one of 
the principal thoroughfares. 

Before the railways had connected the Alfold 
with the capital and other parts of Hungary, 
Debreczen was considered the centre of the country, 
but now that the district is within a few hours' 
reach of Budapest, and only about one or two 
hours from Nagy Varad, the town has lost much 
of its prestige, but still it offers the most interesting 
sight to a stranger, for nowhere in Hungary can one 
see such a gathering of the variety of peasant farmers, 
cowboys, herdsmen, and pedlars as is to be seen here 
on such occasions, and their variety of costumes and 
quaint ways all go to make up a picture which once 
seen will never be forgotten. 

The Fair of Debreczen 

As you stroll along its picturesque streets and 
boulevards, adorned by rows of acacia-trees, you are 
struck by the interesting crowd of townspeople, 
interspersed by the csikos (cowboys) or gulyds 
(herdsmen) from the adjoining puszta, all dressed 



in the costly and beautiful national costumes, and, 
if you have occasion to stay a day or two in the 
place, you may obtain a better insight into Hun- 
garian national life than is to be gained by a stay 
of months in Budapest. Here everything is simply 
and entirely Hungarian, as indeed one may expect, 
considering that at this place we are in the heart 
of the great Hungarian Alfold (the Lowlands). 

This town has always been celebrated for its 
wonderful fairs, and in olden days the fairs at 
Debreczen could not even be outrivalled by those at 
Nijni Novgorod. Though since the introduction of 
railways they have lost a great deal of their signi- 
ficance, yet the town remains one of the largest 
grain markets in Europe, and the enormous amount 
of Hungarian cattle brought there for sale on market 
days is not to be equalled in any other place. It is 
quite a sight to be here at fair-time, and to witness 
the busy life of the people. Here we see cartloads 
containing large displays of the finest sheepskins 
(bunda) and national uniforms, evidently intended 
for sale amongst the csikos (cowboys) and peasants. 
There, furiously driving along, comes the kupecz 
(peasant merchant) carrying perhaps one or two 
thousand pounds in his pocket ! Here carts laden 
with various kinds of poultry come towards us ; the 
cackling and crowing and cracking make a confused 
babel of sounds. There a large flock of cows pass 
by, their fine white horns glittering in the sun, their 
lowing is interrupted by the baa of herds of sheep 
just arriving. Teams of horses and colts, driven and 
ridden by numbers of csikos, confront us at frequent 



intervals. The cracking of their whips echoes in the 
air; they all wend their way towards the plains just 
outside the town, where enormous tents and huts 
are being erected for the fair to be commenced the 
next day — the fair day at Debreczen. Here, on 
these plains, which only yesterday were utterly 
barren, thousands and thousands of tents and huts 
have sprung up, where a large quantity of peasant 
costumes and all kinds of dress and material for 
dress are exhibited, and where boots, hats, orna- 
ments, agricultural implements, and every imaginable 
article are offered for sale in great variety, while 
rows upon rows of tents give the people refreshment 
and drinks of every description. One must have 
been an eye-witness of the scene in order to be able 
to picture the enormous amount of people who flock 
to the fair. What a novel and picturesque sight it 
is ! One sees, shoulder to shoulder in the crowd, the 
peasant arrayed in the new clothes he has just 
purchased walking along with his old garments 
hanging on his back ; the young dandy with two or 
three hats piled on top of the other on his head ; 
the csikos, the kondds, and the whole of the peasant 
aristocracy from the adjoining villages. Here Bandi- 
bacsi (Uncle Bandi *) comes gaily along. He carries 
in his hand a group of clanking chains for his oxen. 
No wonder he is merry, for he has plenty of money 
in his pocket, having just sold two couples of calves. 
There the young lover walks arm in arm with his 

* In the Hungarian language the term hdcsi, " uncle/' is 
applied in addressing or speaking of any man who is older than 



fiancee ; there is a radiant look upon her face, for 
he has just bought her a new silk handkerchief and 
pdntlikd (a cluster of ribbons) for her hair. He, too, 
is evidently happy. He struts along, clinking his 
spurs, and carrying in his hand the handkerchiefs 
she has embroidered for him. In this noisy crowd 
we see the Zsanddr (gendarmes) in their picturesque 
uniforms, groups of gipsies and people of all sorts 
and conditions. In the midst of all the hubbub, we 
hear the cries of the street vendors who sell handker- 
chiefs, imitation jewellery, ribbons and trifling 
articles of every description. Seated on the ground, 
the women of Szeged sell the paprika (red pepper) 
for which they are famous. 

Next we see Sari Asszony (Mrs. Sarah) busy 
handing her fine pork sausages, which she cooks 
over her fire. The baker boy next to her, who is 
blowing his horn all the time, is also busy doing a 
roaring trade, and vending a quantity of perecz 
(round cakes made from eggs in the form of rings 
which he carried on a stick). Be careful as you 
push your way along, lest you fall over some of the 
busy women who are cooking at your feet ! But yet 
another aspect of life at the fair remains to be seen. 
This is as you walk along between the two rows of 
tebernas (huts which serve as inns), where you see 
crowds of peasants all clustered and seated together. 
They are drinking the dldomds (the so-called blessed 
drink), for according to them no bargain is concluded 
without a drink to ratify it. All round here are the 
gipsies playing frantically away on their fiddles. 

As you quit the place with the noise ringing in 



your ears, you come upon a strange contrast of 
scene, for you are suddenly face to face with the 
great Puszta (or plain) of Hortobagy. 

The Puszta of Hortobagy 

But the most interesting sight in the vicinity of 
Debreczen is the great Hortobagy Puszta, the largest 
of the kind in Hungary, which occupies an area of 
fifty-two thousand Hungarian acres, the greater 
portion of which has never yet been ploughed. The 
waste territory was formerly a marshy, reedy swamp, 
but, after the irrigation of the Tisza, it became all 
pastoral land, where thousands of cattle and sheep 
are now tended, and where the celebrated studs of 
fiery Hungarian colts are reared. These colts run 
about wild up to their second or third year in the 
full delight of liberty, and it requires skill only 
equalled by that of the Mexican cowboy, to capture 
them and tame them when required for training 

One can drive about for hours and hours in this 
fabulously large estate without meeting anything or 
anybody but the enormous herds of cattle, sheep and 
horses, tended by hundreds of men, and the only 
objects to attract the eye, besides this enchanting 
picture, are the quaint drawing wells standing up 
against the horizon. 

In fine weather these shepherds and cowboys 
wander about from place to place, sleeping in the 
open air, their bed being the bunda, a long sheepskin 
coat. Spread all over the puszta you will find little 



straw-built huts, where they and their flocks and 
herds take refuge in rainy and stormy weather, and 
where they all congregate on special fete days. 
These huts are called kardm. 

The men who tend the hordes of cattle are thus 
designated : — the cowboy, Csikos : the shepherd, or 
Juhdsz : the herdsman, or Gulyds : and the swine- 
herd, or Kondds. Each of them may be easily 
recognised by his distinctive attire. 

The csikos is not a man who is simply hired to 
attend upon the horses. No, something more is 
required of him. He has hereditary gifts, for he is 
the son and grandson of a race of csikos, who have 
reared horses for generations, and can boast of 
knowing the pedigree of almost every horse on the 
plains. At a tender age the young csikos is seen 
in his native village, or puszta, galloping on horse- 
back and performing feats which would outrival any 
circus rider. When he attains the age of twelve he 
joins his father in the plains, where he finds plenty 
of leisure to form more intimate acquaintance with 
his charges. And those who have occasion to be 
eye-witnesses of the lassooing of these animals will 
not wonder at the csikos being immortalised by the 
greatest Hungarian writers. Imagine thousands of 
colts in their state of utter wildness being driven 
into rings, and, in their fury and excitement, rearing, 
and kicking, and prancing to such an extent that 
few indeed would dare to approach them ; and then 
picture the csikos, with quiet dexterity, throwing 
round them their lassoos, springing on to their backs, 
and riding — or seeming, indeed, to fly — away with 




In the Rhedey Mausoleum of Nagy Va'rad 


them across the plains ! After an hour the animals 
may be almost said to be tamed. At any rate, they 
are subdued, and it is possible to ride them. 

The attire of the csikos is simple, but picturesque. 
His costume consists of a short hussar jacket 
carelessly thrown over his shoulders, sometimes 
covered by the long sheepskin coat called the 
bunda, wide linen drawers (gatya) neatly pleated 
into a band at the waist, and a red waistcoat plenti- 
fully ornamented with buttons. His white shirt has 
wide hanging sleeves. On his head he wears a smart 
round felt hat with a feather. To complete every- 
thing, come top-boots with spurs. As he springs on 
to his bare-backed horse, giving the final touch to 
his fierce moustache, and slashing his whip with a 
crack which re-echoes across the plains, he can sing 
with Pet6fi — 

On the Puszta I was born, 

On the Puszta I dwell! 

I have no roof to my head! 

But I have a horse who can scale hurdles 

And I am a Csikos of the Alfold plains. 

Saddleless do I sit my steed, 

And my way leads me hither and thither; 

I do not require any reins, 

For I am a Csikos of the Alfold plains. 

Nagy Varad 

This town has a special interest for us, as here 
and in the county of Bihar, of which Nagy Varad 
is the capital, many members of the Rhedey family 

257 s 


resided, and had immense estates and family seats, 
and by the kind courtesy of Mr. Charles Rimler, 
the Burgomaster of Nagy Varad, and Mr. Louis 
Lakos (keeper of the archives of the county), we are 
enabled to give a precise account of those members 
of the Rhedey family specially associated with the 
town or who resided in the county. The illustrious 
Ferencz (Francis) II. was Military Governor of the 
district, and had his residence at Nagy Varad. 
Francis Rhedey III., Prince of Transylvania, 
after his abdication retired to his estates at Bihar. 
But it was Count Lajos II. of Rhedey who, as we 
have already stated, specially identified himself with 
the town and county during the many years he held 
the post of Lord-Lieutenant and Governor, when he 
was greatly revered. 

Very touching indeed was the letter wherein he 
took leave of the town and the response of the 
municipality thereto, with copies of which the 
present writer has been favoured from the archives 
of the county. 

That the town of Nagy Varad is grateful to his 
memory is shown by the fact that, when the new 
town hall was opened in 1904, Burgomaster Rimler 
specially referred to the memory of Count Lajos 
Rhedey and the other members of the family, in- 
cluding Count Adam Rhedey, President of the 
Royal Curia of Transylvania, who was one of the 
most generous supporters of Nagy Varad, and after 
the great conflagation gave enormous sums for the 
sufferers and the rebuilding of the town. 

Many other members of the Rhedey family 



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From the Family Mausoleum at Nagy Varad 

Reproduced by the kind permission of the Municipality of Nagy Varad 


resided either at Nagy Varad or in its vicinity, as 
also many of those who married into other families, 
these including Mme Johanna de Bardossy (nee 
Countess Rhedey) and Mme Bela de Frater (nee 
Countess Rhedey), the mother of the eminent 
deputy and writer, M. Lorant Frater. The sisters, 
Baroness de Wesselenyi and Baroness de Horvath, 
often spend their time on their estates in Bihar at 
their beautiful castle of Zsak. 

Nagy Varad is also the seat of the great family 
of Kornis. This family, to whom reference has 
already been made, became by constant marriages 
related to the House of Rhedey ; indeed, they claim 
to have a similar descent. Their ancestor was a 
certain French Marquis named William Kornis, 
who settled in Hungary in the reign of King Samuel 
Aba, and after the death of that monarch he is 
supposed to have married his widow, Queen Char- 
lotte. One of the members of the family was a 
lady-in-waiting and constant companion and friend 
of the late Empress-Queen Elizabeth, and accom- 
panied her on her many visits to England. 

Nagy Varad holds the same position in Central 
Hungary that does Kassa in the northern portion of 
the country. It lies on the high road to Eastern 
Europe, and is close to Transylvania. It is one of 
the oldest towns in Hungary and boasts of a bishopric 
founded by St. Stephen and a church built by 
St. Ladislaus, where this monarch as well as 
Stephen II. was buried. 

The Turks in 1588 tried to capture the town, but 
did not succeed till 1660. During the independence 

259 s 2 


of Transylvania the town and district were incor- 
porated with that Principality. It was, however, 
garrisoned by the Turks, its Pasha, with that of 
Temesvar, holding the highest rank in the land after 
that of Buda. Several important incidents in the 
history of the country occurred at Nagy Varad ; 
thus the treaty between Ferdinand I. of Austria — 
the first King of Hungary — and his rival, King John 
Szapolyai, in which the independence of Transylvania 
was proclaimed and the partition of Hungary between 
the two monarchs, was declared and signed here at 
Nagy Varad. 

It is one of the most picturesque towns in 
Hungary, though it has many factories and a pros- 
perous trade, it being generally named the " Birming- 
ham of Hungary." There are many imposing public 
buildings and bishoprics for the three dominating 
religions, Protestant, Roman Catholic and Russian 
Orthodox Church, and Catholic and Greek Church. 
It has a Law Academy and several High Colleges. 
It is appreciated for the surrounding districts, which 
import here their grain and wines that are grown 
abundantly in the district. The inhabitants of the 
town and district are principally Hungarians, Wal- 
lachians and Germans, but the neighbourhood in the 
direction of Transylvania is entirely peopled by 

Here we are in close proximity to Transylvania. 



* ■ 
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Reproduced from an old Painting in the Family Mausoleum at Nagy Vdrad 


Transylvania — The Pearl of the Hungarian 


Amongst the precious jewels of nature which stud 
the enchanting soil of the Hungarian Crownlands, 
the most precious of all is Transylvania, appro- 
priately termed " The Pearl of the Hungarian 

Nature has been very kind in lavishing all its 
beauties on this earthly paradise, the possession of 
which was so coveted by other nations and people 
right from the darkest ages of history; Dacians, 
Goths, Huns, Greeks, Romans, Magyars, and Turks, 
all conquered it in turn, and left traces behind of 
their former might and grandeur. 

The gigantic height of the snow-clad Alps, upon 
which the picturesque ancient castles, ruins, and 
villages are scattered in reckless fashion, its pre- 
cipitous mountain passes, its deep gorges and 
smiling valleys, and golden-coloured streams and 
waterfalls which break forth into auriferous moun- 
tains, its mediaeval monuments and picturesque 
people, all give it an ensemble such as is seldom to 
be seen anywhere in other countries. When we 
recall the fact that Transylvania has been the bastion 
against the Turkish invasion, not only for Hungary, 
but for the whole of the Western civilisation, that 
it has been the cradle of religious freedom and 



liberty, and that the glory of the country has been 
established by the paternal ancestors of Her Majesty 
the Queen, a short account of the country may prove 
of special interest. 


The Transylvania of to-day, which is situated on 
the extreme east of the mother country, Hungary, 
is somewhat larger than Scotland, but in its golden 
period, when the country, during the rule of the 
princes, included several counties now belonging to 
Hungary, and Wallachia was for a time under its 
sway, the Principality was nearly the size of England. 
The lofty and rugged mountains which surround it in 
an irregular circle give it the appearance of a natural 
fortress made unapproachable by the narrow precipi- 
tous and winding passes leading to the ancient 
Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia (the 
Roumania of to-day). The large forests, the vast 
ravines, the lovely valleys, and the mountain chains 
which intercept the interior render the country one 
of the most romantically beautiful in Europe. 

Nature has also liberally endowed it with great 
resources in its vast mineral wealth, and the gold of 
its mountains and rivers have, so to speak, passed 
into a proverb, whilst its mines of silver, copper, 
iron, and salt are the largest to be found in the 
Hungarian kingdom. 

From the point of antiquity, Transylvania can 
boast of many interesting relics of the Dacian and 
Roman periods as well as of the Middle Ages, when 
the country played so important a part in the world's 



history, and these relics are scattered about all over 
the country, in towns and villages. One is reminded 
here of the days when the Turks were all-powerful, 
and became a menace to Christianity. 

High up in the mountains memories of the remote 
past are preserved, for on the very loftiest peaks, 
where once upon a time the Huns raised their altars 
and worshipped their God Yesten — the debris 
of Budavar, the palace of the mighty Attila, may 
still be seen, and under its ruins lies buried Beka, 
the favourite wife of the Emperor of the Huns — the 
" Scourge of God." 

But nature, too, has left traces of her wonderful 
creations, and whilst her volcanic powers have thrown 
up huge boulders, under which amethysts and other 
precious stones lie scattered, it has pierced the heart 
of the mountains, and its fancy has interspersed 
them with fairy-like glens and ravines, the like of 
which are not to be seen elsewhere throughout the 

Whilst the mountain passes speak to us of the 
wonders produced by the magic wand of the saintly 
king, St. Ladislaus, of the House of Arpad, so near 
of kin to King Samuel Aba, the ancestor of Her 
Majesty the Queen, down yonder in the plains of 
Kenyermezo, one is reminded of the heroic valour 
of Hunyady and Kinizsi. Every inch of the ground 
has a story to reveal of the marvellous exploits of 
the Princes of Transylvania, amongst whom so many 
of Her Majesty's ancestors are to be found. 

Transylvania is rightly termed the " Land of 
Sport," for in its huge forests many large animals, 



such as bears, wolves, wild boars, chamois, and a 
variety of game swarm in large quantities and fall an 
easy prey to the sportsman's gun. 

Apart from its wonderful Alpine vegetation, the 
interior of the country is studded with enormous 
orchards, and fruits of all and every variety grow in 

The people of Transylvania consist of three 
nationalities and comprise, besides Magyars, the 
ruling race, the Wallachs, the descendants of Daco- 
Roumanians, the Szeklers or Szekely, a people much 
alike in appearance to the Hungarians, speaking the 
same language, but who, according to tradition, 
originally inhabited Transylvania at the time of the 
Magyar conquest and claim to be the descendants 
of the Huns, some of whom after their defeat took 
refuge in the mountains of Transylvania, whilst 
others, under the leadership of Csaba, son of Attila, 
the traditional ancestor of the House of Aba, returned 
to Central Asia. 

Finally, we have the Saxons, a German people 
from the Rhine, who in the twelfth century were 
invited to settle there and protect the country 
against the hordes of Tartars, Mongols, and 
other barbarians who were constantly invading the 

These settlers received special privileges for the 
maintenance of their national customs and language, 
to which they have adhered to the present day, their 
dialect, spoken in Germany centuries ago, being now 

The various nationalities inhabit special districts 











of their own. The characteristic and charming attire 
of the Szekelys — a people who pride themselves on 
being the descendants of the Huns — have not altered 
in the slightest degree for centuries past, nor have 
the Saxon settlers in Transylvania deviated from 
their Teutonic ways of the mediaeval ages, either in 
dress or manner or speech, whilst the Wallachians, 
in their quaint and rustic costumes, form the greatest 
contrast of all, and are picturesque in the extreme. 
The villages and hamlets on the heights of the 
mountains or in the depths of the valleys are spread 
about in reckless fashion, their primitive huts and 
cottages offering favourite themes for the pencil and 
brush of the artist. 

The women of Transylvania have been famed 
from time immemorial for their great beauty and 
horsemanship. It should also be remembered that 
the fiery Transylvanian horse is unequalled for its 
elegant form, its speed and endurance. 


The history of Transylvania from the time of its 
conquest by the Magyars and during the eventful 
centuries which followed, is outlined in our sketch 
relating to the history of Hungary, and is further 
dealt with in describing the glorious reign of its 
princes, who form the subject of our narrative. 

But it might not be out of place to refer to the 
country when it became famous as Dacia, the sub- 
jugation of which is immortalised on the Trajan 
Column at Rome. 



We first hear of the Dacians, the ancient inhabit- 
ants of Transylvania, who gave their name to the 
country, Dacia, in the time of Alexander the Great, 
when under their King Sarmis they refused to 
acknowledge his supremacy, and their country was 
consequently invaded and ravaged by his troops. 
This Sarmis is said to have been the founder of a 
town called Sarmisegethusa, situated on a site near 
that of the present Torda, where on many different 
occasions quantities of gold coins have been found 
bearing on one side his effigy and on the reverse 
the fortified gate of the town. 

On the division of Alexander's conquests amongst 
his generals, Thrace, together with the land on 
either side of the Danube, fell to the share of 
Lysimachus. The new king, however, found his 
subjects disinclined to accept his rule, and was 
obliged to march against them at the head of a 
large force. Dromicoietes, the successor of Sarmis, 
was prepared for the attack, and succeeded not only 
in resisting the Grecian army, but in capturing its 
chief and appropriating the rich plunder of his camp. 

It is most probable that the enormous quantity 
of coins found in this neighbourhood in the middle 
of the sixteenth century bearing the effigy of 
Lysimachus and the name of Cossea, a town in 
Thrace, where they were evidently struck, were the 
remnants of the great plunder of Dromicoetes from 
his Greek adversaries. 

From that period up to the reign of the Emperor 
Augustus, nearly two hundred and fifty years, 

nothing is recorded in any way of Dacia ; during the 








Emperor's rule, their King, Cotyso by name, 
more than once invaded Italy and ravaged the 
country, by which he was looked upon in the light 
of a dangerous enemy. These incursions were 
repeated later ; finally, during the reign of Domitian, 
the Dacians obtained many victories, so that the 
Roman Empire of the time was compelled to come 
to terms with them by the payment of a yearly 
tribute to their King Decebalus. As soon, however, 
as the Emperor Trajan ascended the throne he made 
up his mind to submit to this indignity no longer, 
and organised an expedition, headed by himself, 
against Dacia. In this expedition the Emperor 
passed through Pannonia (the present Hungary), 
crossing the River Tisza, followed the course of the 
River Maros, and reached Transylvania by this 
comparatively easy way of access. The first great 
battle between his troops and the Dacian King 
Decebalus took place at Torda, and proved disastrous 
to the Dacians, Decebalus being compelled to take 
refuge in his capital, Sarmisegethusa, and to submit 
to humiliating conditions. 

The Dacians having later on broken this treaty, 
the Emperor decided upon another expedition, and 
this time decided that he would make Dacia a 
Roman province. In this expedition he crossed the 
Danube below the Iron Gates, where he afterwards 
built his famous bridge. Tradition holds that the 
Romans gave it the name of the Iron Gate, as they 
found the pass so narrow that they actually put a 
huge iron gate across it to prevent being followed 
and attacked in the rear. 



This time, however, the Dacians, feeling that they 
were unable to offer any resistance, rather than 
surrender their capital, set fire to it, and fled to the 
mountains. King Decebalus, being unable to escape 
from his pursuers, stabbed himself to death sooner 
than become subjugate to Rome. 

As soon as Trajan had completed the conquest of 
the country, he reorganised and divided it in the 
following manner. The present Transylvania became 
Dacia Mediterranea ; Wallachia and Moldavia, Dacia 
Transalpina ; and the Banat, Dacia Bipensis. He 
constructed the great bridge over the Danube, and 
made a road in the rocks along its banks. 

He built the imperial city of Ulpia Trajana, 
which he destined as a seat for the Government 
beyond the Danube, Torda, and several other places, 
and, connecting them by roads (remains of which 
still exist), he employed them as the means of 
perpetuating the power of Rome in the newly- 
acquired territory. On the ruins of Sarmisegethusa 
was the residence of Decebalus. 

The Romans seem to have remained masters of 
Dacia till the time of Aurelian, when they finally 
retired across the Danube. 

Although the duration of the Roman Empire in 
this country was much shorter than in many others 
of Europe — about one hundred and seventy years 
only — yet in none of the countries did the Romans 
leave such striking mementoes of their dominion, 
especially in the language. The Wallach of the 
present day calls himself " Rumunyi," and retains a 
traditional pride in his ancestry. The language now 



spoken by all the people of this nation is soft, abound- 
ing in vowels, and deriving most of its words from 
the Latin. 

The journey from Nagy Varad to Transylvania is 
a most beautiful one. Along the rivulets and streams, 
poppies grow in the greatest abundance, whilst the 
mountains are covered by ancient oaks, now and 
then relieved by pine-trees, and amidst rocky hills 
and steep descents, we reach Transylvania. 

On our way we are struck by the quaint and 
picturesque valley of BanfTy Hunyad, the in- 
habitants of which are known for their beautiful 
embroidery work. These embroideries, which are 
characteristic patterns of the country, and at the 
same time most artistic in design, have found their 
way all over the world, and indeed have become 
a great fashion amongst the aristocracy. 


We make our first stop at Kolozsvar, the capital 
of Transylvania. The town is situated in a most 
lovely valley on the banks of the River Szamos, and 
is one of the prettiest towns in Hungary. It is a city 
with a glorious past, in which Her Majesty's ancestors 
had such a large share, and the heroic deeds of its 
ruling princes in the days of its independence were 
not immortalised in vain by Jokai, Josika, and 
other poets of Hungary. 

The streets of Kolozsvar are fine and broad, and 
in the large and busy market square stands the 
cathedral built by King Sigismund in 1414. Kolozsvar 



boasts of having given birth to the great King 
Matthias Corvinus in 1433. The house where he 
was born is now used as an ethnographical museum. 

The Matthias Corvinus Monument, designed by- 
John Fadrusz, unveiled in 1902, is one of the most 
imposing works of modern art. There are many 
interesting relics relating to the War of Independence 
in the Historical Museum of this town. The Erdely 
Museum (Transylvanian Museum) will be found of 
special interest as illustrating the golden age of the 
country's story. 

1 Kolozsvar is the centre of the Transylvanian 
aristocracy, and most of the magnates own sump- 
tuous palaces there. The most magnificent of these 
are the Banfly and Wesselenyi palaces, but the 
Telekis, Bethlens, and other families used to have 
their town residences here. 

The once magnificent palace of the Rhedeys 
was for centuries the centre of social life in the land, 
and it was at the same time the seat of culture. 
Count Laszlo Rhedey, the grandfather of the late 
Duke of Teck, a great patron of art and letters, 
built at his own expense, and presented to the town, 
the first theatre at Kolozsvar, which, as we shall see 
later, afterwards became the great national theatre 
of Kolozsvar. It was at this palace that Countess 
Claudia Rhedey, the mother of the late Duke of 
Teck, spent a great deal of her childhood, and it was 
also endeared to the late Duke by many memories. 
Of the once former splendid residence only a small 
portion is left. The larger part has been demolished 
to make room for the principal hotel in Kolozsvar. 



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In the remaining part of the Rhedey Palace certain 
relics of the family are sacredly guarded, and by the 
kind courtesy of the Baroness de Horvath we are 
able to give an illustration of some of the antique 
furniture used by the Countess Claudia Rhedey. In 
one of the rooms is to be seen a very interesting 
memorial tablet erected to the memory of Count 
Janos Rhedey, the great general of the Empress 
Maria Theresia, who died in 1768, an illustration of 
which is also reproduced, together with the actual 
text of the inscription. 



Kolozsvar is the seat of many cultured societies and 

In the direction of Dees, and passing Szamos 
Ujvar, amidst a picturesque group of mountains 
called the Bethlen range, is situated the village of 
Bethlen, the cradle seat of the illustrious House 
of Bethlen. The castle is surrounded by a most 



beautiful park, and contains an interesting family 

We now leave Kolozsvar and proceed into the 
heart of Transylvania. On our way to Torda you 
will be already enchanted with the many charming 
features of the scenery ; but the honours of 
romantic and historical interest fall to Torda and 
Nagy-Enyed. In looking at the former little place, 
you could hardly believe that beneath it lies buried 
a Roman town, yet this is the case, if we are to credit 
the ruins, colossal statues, columns, and other relics 
which have been found here. The debris of the salt 
mines situated close by, and the salt lakes, in which 
no insects or plants can live, will vouch for the 
presence of Vulcan, who has carried out his work 
of destruction with such terrible effect. Close by is 
a huge mountain cleft, the Torda Glen, the finest 
of the kind in the country. It is hollowed by a 
mountain brook, and in places it is so narrow that 
the water can hardly pass through it. Legend tells 
that when St. Ladislaus was pursued by his enemies 
and had no way of escape, the mountains sprang 
asunder, and he and his army were able to pass. 
Torda is also famed for its salt mines, formerly 
worked by the Romans. The quaint bridge on 
the River Aranyos is one of the landmarks of the 

The people of the village of Toroczko preserve 
every characteristic of their Szekely (Szekler) origin. 



The Maros Valley 

Following the course of the beautiful Maros 
river, between Torda and Nagy-Enyed, one is struck 
by an immense plain of cornfields. Remember, its 
name is Keresztesmezo (Plains of the Crusaders), for 
here the Crusaders assembled on their way to the 
Holy Land. It was here also, long before, that 
Dacibal fought his last battle with Trajan, and the 
remains of its ancient fort and the Roman swords 
constantly found by the peasants when ploughing 
the fields will serve to remind one of the decisive 
battle fought between the Emperor Trajan and the 
last King of Dacia. 

But what has immortalised these plains for all 
time is the memory of the great battle fought by 
Janos Hunyadi against the Turks, whom he totally 

Janos Hunyadi solemnised his victory in a 
Christianlike manner, for close by stands a church 
which he built in commemoration of the battle. In 
1848 these plains were again the scene of many 

Following further the Maros river, we come to 
Maros Ujvdr, which contains one of the largest salt 
mines in Europe. Thence we reach Maros Vdsdrhely, 
the Szekely capital of Transylvania. It is the seat 
of the eminent Hungarian explorer, Count Samu 
Teleki, to whom we refer elsewhere ; and here also 
is the famous Teleki Library. The castle is one of 
the finest in Transylvania. 

273 t 


The country all round Maros Vasarhely is so 
beautiful that it defies description. It was on the 
height of the mountains where the mighty Attila 
erected his favourite residence, and close by stood 
the altar of the pagan god Yesten, from whom 
tradition claims that the King of the Huns received 
the sword with which he vanquished so many 
nations, and which he left as a legacy to the Magyars. 

But what will interest us most in the Maros and 
Torda district is the village of Erdo Szent Gyorgy, the 
birthplace of Her Majesty's grandmother, the beauti- 
ful Claudia, Countess Rhedey, and where she was 

The Birthplace of Her Majesty's Grandmother 

(Erdo Szent Gyorgy) 

It is a strange but remarkable coincidence that 
this place, which in English signifies " St. George of 
Transylvania," should in the future become so 
closely connected with St. George of England. Erd<5 
Szent Gyorgy is a very pretty village, situated on the 
slopes of a mountain once crowned b}^ the ruins of 
a castle. Legendary lore credits great treasures to 
have been buried in the well here, for which treasures 
the peasants have sought in vain for centuries. 
There are now no signs or vestige of these ruins, 
though in the very excellent work written by 
Mr. John Paget on Hungary and Transylvania in 
1839 * he refers to their existence. In those days, 

* " Hungary and Transylvania." By John Paget. London 
Murray, 1839. 





























































when the country was still inaccessible to the 
ordinary traveller, the journey from Hungary to 
Transylvania was by no means an easy task, and 
had to be performed by many stages across the 
steep mountain passes. Mr. Paget, who seems to 
have travelled with a caravan of his own, happened 
to run short of provisions in this village, and refers 
to the generosity of the hospitality he received at 
the Manor House of the Rhedeys. 

Amongst the many family seats of the Rhedeys in 
Transylvania, Erdo Szent Gyorgy used to be their 
favourite residence, where they could lead a simple 
country life. Though, since the death of the parents 
of the late Duke of Teck, and with the extinction of 
the male branch of the House of Rhedey, it has not 
been visited by a single member of the family, yet 
the memory of the Rhedeys is sacredly preserved by 
the descendants of those who have lived and seen 
their might and splendour, and who are proud to 
know that within the walls of its ancient manor 
house, the grandmother of Her Majesty first saw the 
light, and that her remains, together with those of 
a long line of illustrious ancestors, are buried in the 
parish church. 

The church, which was built in the days of the 
Hunyadys, was endowed by the Rhedey family, and 
was restored within the last century at the expense 
of Baroness Wesselenyi, nee Countess Rhedey. Her 
Majesty the Queen has given proof how dearly she 
reveres the memory of her grandmother by having 
caused a memorial tablet to be placed in the church 
some years ago, and with Her Majesty's gracious 

275 t 2 


permission we reproduce elsewhere a copy of the 

On the great national event of Her Majesty's 
Coronation, and amidst the joyous and hearty 
wishes that will accompany their Majesties on that 
historic occasion, nowhere will the rejoicings be more 
sincere than in Erdo Szent Gyorgy, the inhabit- 
ants of which are proud that the Queen of Great 
Britain, the mightiest of Empires, should be linked 
by family ties with the history of their village, and 
at the moment when the bells of St. Paul's and those 
throughout the vast British Empire will be merrily 
ringing in celebration of this solemn and memorable 
event, those of the village of Erdo Szent Gyorgy 
will send their echo from the land of St. Stephen. 

One of the most interesting sights in the Maros 
district is the cave of Almas, reached by paths in the 
ancient forest never cut by human hand. This 
wonderful creation of nature consists of fifteen huge 
cells. During the Tartar invasion the entire popula- 
tion took refuge here and managed to exist for weeks. 

Numerous health resorts are scattered about the 
lofty mountains ; indeed, there is hardly a village 
in the district without one or two mineral springs, 
efficacious for some kind of malady. Among these 
Borszek deserves mention on the Maros Vasarhely 
and Szaszre'gen railway ; and Eldpatak, which in 
olden days used to be the rendezvous of the Servian 
Waiwodes and Roumanian Boyars. 

But the largest of all is Tusnad, in the vicinity 
of which is situated the Lake of St. Anna, the pride 
of Transylvania. 




The Lake of St. Anna 

This wonderful lake is situated amongst huge 
mountains, the approach to which appears to be 
almost impassable. 

The lake is about a mile in circumference and 
three thousand feet above the sea-level. Calm and 
still it lies, sheltered by the surrounding hills, whose 
pictures are reflected on its lovely green and unruffled 
surface. Close to the lake is another phenomenon of 
Nature in the shape of a phosphate cave. Its walls 
are covered with phosphate flowers ; but beware ! 
for one breath would deprive you of life. 


Coming back we touch first Nagy-Enyed, to 
which a casual reference has been made. This town 
boasts the largest Protestant College in Transylvania, 
endowed by Prince Bethlen, as referred to elsewhere 
in these pages. It was burnt down in 1849 by the 
Roumanian insurgents, and a large subscription was 
made in England for the college during the reign 
of Queen Anne. 

It is either from here or from Torda that the 
mining districts of Transylvania can be visited. 

The Mining Districts 

The mines in the district surrounding Abrud- 
banya are about the oldest in Europe, having been 
worked by the Romans, who left relics behind in 



the shape of inscriptions, tools, etc. Not far off, 
across lovely pine woods, is the world-renowned 
Detonata. As you suddenly perceive the mass of 
rocks you are struck dumb by this marvel of Nature. 
You might almost think that you see before you a 
huge Gothic structure with golden pillars ; but no, 
this is no work of man, it is the work of Nature, and 
the glittering gold is only a proof that there is 
abundance of the precious metal hidden in the 
recesses of the rock. 

Gyula Fehervar 

Passing several picturesque Wallachian hamlets, 
we reach Gyula Fehervar, a pretty mining town, 
once the capital of Transylvania. The church here is 
a fine specimen of Gothic architecture, where lie 
buried several ruling princes of Transylvania. If its 
sacred walls had merely contained the tombs of such 
heroes as Janos Hunyadi and his son Ladislaus, it 
would be sufficient to render it famous, but it also 
holds the graves of King Sigismund and of Queen 
Isabella of Hungary. Over the grave of Janos 
Hunyadi there is a monument representing the 
great Hungarian hero holding his sword, the weight 
of which was felt by many a Mussulman. The 
original sword was stolen, and the thief thought he 
would make a friend of the Turkish commander of 
Gyor, once a great foe of Hunyadi, by taking it to 
him as a present; but the commander, instead of 
thanking him for the gift, had the thief's arm cut 
off for having dared to lay hands on such a noble 




relic, and cast the weapon into the river in order 
that no unworthy hand might touch it. 

Not far from Gyula Fehervar are the plains of 
Kenyer Mezo. It was on this ground that the great 
hero Kinizsi defeated the Turks and raised a huge 
column in commemoration of his victory. Proceeding, 
we take leave for the moment of Gyula Fehervar and 
take the direction of Nagy Szeben. 

Nagy Szeben 

Nagy Szeben is another important city, situated 
on a pretty plateau surrounded by high mountains. 
It is inhabited by the original Saxon settlers, and 
the town has quite a German character. Its ancient 
fortifications and mediaeval buildings are most 
picturesque, but more interesting than all is its 
Protestant church, which was built before the time 
of the Reformation. Close by is Vizakna, a famous 
health resort, and Fogaras, the castle of which once 
served as a residence for Prince Apaffi. Fogaras is 
now famed for its Government stud. 

Next follows the beautiful town of Segesvar, 
which proudly looks down from its round high hill. 
Its turreted and palatial residence, its citadel and 
grand churches, all lend to it a most picturesque and 
quaint appearance. It was near Segesvar that in 
1848 the great national poet Alexander Petofi fell 
fighting whilst inspiring his fellow-countrymen to 
defend the sacred cause of their fatherland. Although 
for many years the Hungarian nation tried to trace 
his remains, they thus far have never been found. 




But by far the prettiest and the best situated 
city in Transylvania is Brasso, picturesquely perched 
on the slopes of the Transylvanian Alps, one of the 
most important towns of the district. Many of its 
buildings date from the fourteenth and fifteenth 
centuries. The whole town lies at a dizzy depth 
beneath our feet, crowned by the gigantic wood- 
clad Czenk mountain. 

We return once more to Gyula Fehe'rvar, 
and proceeding in the direction of Vajda Hunyad 
by way of Szaszvaros, we come to the ruins of the 
historic castle of Deva, known since the Roman 
days, and from here we reach the most celebrated 
castle in Transylvania, that of Vajda Hunyad, 
one of the finest specimens of mediaeval architecture, 
once the stronghold of the hero Janos Hunyadi, 
father of King Matthias. The handsome building 
of the Agricultural Museum at Budapest was copied 
from this beautiful edifice, with which so many 
legends and heroic deeds are associated. 

We are now within easy reach of the historic 
mountain pass to which the Emperor Trajan gave 
the name of Iron Gates, and here we bid good-bye 
to the pearl of the Hungarian Crown, and, taking 
the train by the circuitous railway route through 
the picturesque country of Krasso Szoreny, we reach 
the Hungarian side of the more famous Iron Gates 
near Orsova. 



The Danube Iron Gates 

The Danube Iron Gates have from time 
immemorial barred the way to any incoming 
vessels, by the enormous masses of rocks which 
nature has sunk into her bed, and protected 
Hungary, whose holy freedom was so dearly bought 
by the blood of its heroic sons. Everything changes 
with time, and centuries seem to have extinguished 
the passion for war, which has been one of their 
birthrights. But whilst the Magyars are always 
on the alert and ready to draw their swords in 
defence of their country, animated by a spirit of 
progress and in the interest of its commercial rela- 
tions with the outside world, it was resolved to 
remove, at the expense of many millions of pounds, 
the huge rocks which barred the way of the mer- 
cantile steamers to the Black Sea. It was a mar- 
vellous engineering work and the masterpiece of 
modern times. 

In 1896 the Danube Canal was solemnly opened 
to the world's commerce by the Emperor-King 
Francis Joseph, and was one of the most imposing 
functions ever performed in that part of Hungary, 
and will always be remembered by those who, like 
the writer of these lines, had the privilege of being 
the invited guest of the Hungarian nation on this 
memorable occasion. 



Adakaleh (A Turkish Colony) 

The picturesque little Turkish colony called 
Adakaleh, on the Danube island at Orsova, serves 
to remind one of the former might of the Ottoman 
Empire, whose national flag was hoisted here for 
centuries ; and the history of this little Turkish 
colony is a romantic one. Adakaleh was one of the 
posts held by the Turks for centuries when their 
power was extended nearly to the gates of Vienna, 
and many Sultans visited it on their way to Hungary. 
With the expulsion of the Turks from that country, 
and by the subsequent treaties concluded between 
the German and Ottoman Empires, whereby the 
latter was to give up all the positions it held in 
Hungary, it never occurred to either party to worry 
themselves about the little island of Adakaleh, 
which then remained under the Turkish flag ; and 
even in the Berlin Treaty, when the Turks were 
ousted from Servia and Roumania (which joins the 
Hungarian frontier near Orsova), Adakaleh was 
again forgotten to be included in the treaty, and 
remained under the dominion of the Turks until 
two years ago, when at the time of the Bosnian 
crisis it was finally annexed to the Hungarian 

Hercules Furdo 

The famous Hungarian watering-place, Hercules 
Fiirdo, situated in the vicinity of Orsova, in the lovely 
narrow valley along the mountain stream of Cserna, 





is certain to entice the traveller ; but the central 
point of attraction, and a sight which will always 
be remembered, is a short trip on the Danube 
between Orsova and Bazias, across the defiles of 

The Defiles of Kazan 

Coming from Bazias in the opposite direction, the 
Danube all along winds her way, recklessly and care- 
lessly, amidst rugged hills and mountains, from 
Hungarian soil into Servian territory and the 
confines of Roumania. She dashes along in an ec- 
centric fashion, constantly changing her course and 
sovereignty. Now she likes to water the lands of 
Servia or to have a peep at Roumania, but all at 
once seems to regret quitting the Hungarian soil and 
rushes back into its cherished bosom with joyful 
whispers. The gigantic mountains cheerfully wel- 
come her temporary return and tenderly embrace 
her once more before she quits this romantic region, 
only to disappear ere long for ever in the deep waters 
of the Black Sea. At the Kazan Pass the scene 
becomes bewitchingly grand and unrivalled in beauty 
and splendour. Here the mighty Danube loses 
its way among the mountain cliffs, and flows down 
gently in a modest bed of only 165 metres. Whilst 
gazing upon the dizzy heights of the stream and 
waterfalls which are running down from the pre- 
cipitous rock wall right into her bosom, she forces 
her way through, and leaves her narrow confines. 
It is a grand sight, and one which has no rival or, 
indeed, any equal in Europe. 



Nor is this wonderful region without historic 
interest, for on the rocky walls which encircle the 
Danube there are inscriptions immortalising the 
Dacian campaign of the Emperor Trajan, 103 a.d., 
and the construction of the Via Traina. The road, 
which was built by the once mighty Romans, origi- 
nally ran on the Servian side of the Danube, but right 
opposite, on the Hungarian side of the great river, 
the ever-immortal Hungarian patriot, the father and 
creator of modern Hungary, Count Szechenyi, had 
a beautiful road hewn out of the rock, which is a 
wonderful piece of engineering and of imposing 

At Orsova the Danube once more assumes her 
former might and majesty, and generously shares her 
gifts of beauty amongst the lands of Hungary, Servia, 
and Roumania, who smilingly meet each other here. 



The Alfold (Lowlands) 

From Orsova we are taken back swiftly to 
Budapest by way of Temesvar, across those vast 
and fertile plains situated between the Danube and 
the Tisza known as the Alfold, or Lowlands. 

Here we are in a new world. For hundreds and 
hundreds of miles stretch the endless fields of golden 
corn, waving and rocking like the bosom of the ocean 
over which the Fata Morgana or mirage of the plains 
is playing with her frolic fancy, throwing upward 
her flaming fireworks. As far as eye can see, not a 
village nor hamlet rises on the horizon ; only here 
and there a solitary farmhouse and csdrda (wayside 
inn), or the figure of a csikos (or cowboy) riding 
furiously, disturb the monotony of the scene. And 
so we proceed further amidst forest-like orchards 
and vineyards, or come to sheets of green meadows, 
upon which enormous herds of cattle and sheep 
are grazing, and wild young colts are being pursued 
by the csikos, who, with one lash of their whip in the 
air, make them obey them. 

The Alfold villages are very picturesque in appear- 
ance, and sometimes vast in extent, and present a 
great novelty to the stranger. In the summer or 
during the harvest everybody is on the move. Old 
and young all participate in the work in the field. 
It is one of the finest scenes to see the huge white 



oxen bringing home cartloads of corn, melons, 
maize, tobacco, and numerous other products of 
the soil, and the large herds of sheep and cattle 
making their way homewards towards sunset, and 
the melodious tones of the young maidens ring 
sweetly on in the plain whilst at their work. 

There are numerous extensive farms called 
puszta and tanya all over the plains, though in 
some portions they are less wild in appearance ; in 
fact, most of them contain as many cottages as a 

Those estates or farms situated, say, within half 
an hour of a village are never called puszta ; they 
are named tanya. These tanyas are, indeed, very 
similar to a village, the houses of the owner and 
labourers being surrounded by pretty flower and 
vegetable gardens, rows of acacia-trees, etc. Added 
to this, the cattle and live stock moving about give 
everything a most picturesque appearance. Some 
tanyas are so large that their inhabitants vary in 
number from 1500 to 2000. 

Many are the characteristic features of this vast 
place which strike the eye. The picturesque costumes 
worn by the peasantry change as we pass from 
place to place, and as we reach the large peasant 
town of Kecskemet, and the beautiful city on the 
Tisza Szeged, they become most varied and attrac- 
tive in the extreme. 

Proceeding still further in the vicinity of some 
villages, the scene becomes more animated and 
interesting. You see a continuous stream of peasants. 
One woman carries food to her husband in the fields, 




a quaint water- jug being strapped to her back. 
Another poises a basket of grapes, gathered in the 
vineyard, gracefully upon her head. Here come the 
big-horned oxen, panting under their loads of pump- 
kins, melons, and other field produce. Scattered 
about the roads you see melons, pumpkins, or 
cucumbers, which have evidently fallen from the 
heavily-stocked carts. Why should the people stoop 
to pick them up when they are so plentiful as to 
be got for nothing anywhere, or if not, to be pur- 
chased for a farthing apiece ? 

As you proceed further, every moment reveals 
something fresh to the eye. There you see little boys 
guarding the flocks of poultry, who seem to give 
you welcome with their clattering voices ; here, little 
naked gipsies run towards you, turning somersaults 
and begging for hellers. The little fellows have 
just spied you out from their mud huts, and as you 
pass by the encampment itself, a chorus of voices 
is to be heard. One gipsy offers you trinkets for 
sale, evidently stolen goods. Another says, " Give 
me your cigar, your highness ! " and after you have 
yielded to his request, says simply, " Thank you, 
Mr." Yet another is perfectly satisfied if he can 
steal your pocket-handkerchief, whilst a fourth 
rushes into his hut to seek his fiddle, in order to 
play you a characteristic air ! Everybody is on the 
alert. Even the dogs and cats are excited, howling 
and barking and mewing ! Glad to escape from these 
vagabonds, you go on your way. Your mind is soon 
distracted. There are to be seen the windmills, the 
quaint mills worked by horses, and the pretty 



thatched cottages of the adjoining villages, with 
their roofs guarded by the storks. 

And so, as we proceed to enter a village, we are 
enabled to note the busy life of the peasants coming 
home from the fields — men, women, and children 
carrying on their shoulders their hoes and sickles 
and bundles of hay. You see the little ones running 
delightedly to meet their parents, and the cows, 
calves, and pigs making their way home, too, amidst 
the barking of the dogs. Joyfully they look at and 
rub up against their masters. It is a pleasing sight. 
Even the poultry seem to watch the peasants' return 
with delight, and the storks, to be seen on every 
cottage roof, chatter apparently with pleasure. 

The Alfold is so beautiful and so characteristic 
that to do it justice it should be described in 
the words of Hungary's greatest poet, Alexander 

" What are to me the wild Carpathian mountains 
with their pine trees ? I may admire them, but not 
love them. Nor does my imagination wander into 
their valleys. Down in the interior of the vast and 
ocean-like plains, there I am at home, and that is 
my world. If I look at the endless plains, my 
thoughts fly far away and near to the clouds. I see 
between the Danube and the Tisza the smiling 
picture of the plains. Under the Fata Morgana sky 
the herds of the Kuns are grazing near the wells. 
I hear the tramp of the furious-riding csilcos (cowboy) 
and the clacking of their whips. Near the Puszta 
plains, in the lap of the breeze the corn ears are 
rocking, and with their bright emerald tint they 



pet6fi on the alfold 

joyfully crown the land. Here come at twilight 
the wild ducks who are driven away from their rest 
among the reeds by the swaying of the wind. Beyond 
the farms, in the depths of the puszta, stands a lonely 
csdrda (inn). It is visited by the thirsty betydrs 
(tramps), who go to the fair at Kecskemet. Near 
to the groves of the birches you see the melons 
glittering in the sands. Here, close by, nestles the 
bird undisturbed by the children ; here is cultivated 
the maidenhair plant and the blue cornflower, and 
the lizards come to take shelter from the broiling 
sun under their roots. 

" Far away, where the sky touches the earth in 
mist, the blue orchards are to be seen. Behind them 
the spires of the churches of the distant towns stand 
out in dim fog-like streaks. You are beautiful, 
Alfold ! At least you are beautiful to me. Here I 
was born and cradled, and here I would have my 
eyelids closed, and my tomb raised." 

But in the Alfold one is no less reminded of the 
brave sons of Hungary who for a thousand years 
were led to so many victories by Her Majesty's 
ancestors, and one recalls the words of the immortal 
poet Vorosmarty, 

This is the soil whereon so oft 

Arpad's red blood has rained like tears ; 

This is the soil whose holy name 
Has lasted for a thousand years. 

The hero Arpad's noble troops 

Struggled for Freedom's lofty name, 

Here Hunyady's arms were blest 
When Slavery broke her iron chain. 

289 u 


For Freedom's cause the country's flag. 

Waved crimson with the warriors' blood ; 
Too proud to bear the name of slaves, 

They struggling sank into the flood. 


Copyright ,* Section... 2 "."Secti, 

3 rd Section.... *'* Section. 

The House of Teckljy louis Felfcerman 

Tublish^d by John long IVCoitJm 



Aba, House of, 12, 41 seq. 

Ancient Homes of, 186 seq. 

Branches, 42 

Extinct, 97 

Marriage Connections, 16, 17 and n. 

Member assumes name of 
Rhedey, 244 

Peter of. See Peter 

Possessions, 186 

Relics in Upper Hungary, 230 

Take refuge at Polish Court, 41 
Aba Samu. See Samu Aba 
Aba-Uj-Torna County, 98, 230 
Abolbad, Aba, homo regis, 62 
Abrudbanya Mines, Roman relics, 

Acacia Trees, 286 
Adakaleh, Turkish Colony, 282 

Annexed to Hungary, 282 
Adalbert of Zahringen, 11 
Adelhaid, Princess, wife of Duke 

Geza, 17 n, 26 
Aethelings, English, in Hungary, 

30 seq. See also Names 
Agasvar, 24 

Agatha, daughter of Samu Aba, 
wife of Edward, 31, 32, 33, 34, 
Aggtelek, stalactite cave, 227 

Agnes, wife of Philip Augustus of 

France, 216 
Agnes of Thuringia, 219, 220 
Aladar, Son of Attila, 14 
Albert I. of Habsburg, Emperor, 4 
Albert II., King of Hungary, Ger- 
many, and Bohemia, 47 
Aldomas (Blessed Drink), 254 
Alexander II., Czar, 9 
Alexander I. and II., Dukes of 

Wiirtemberg, Marriages, 10 
Alexander of Wiirtemberg, Prince, 

Marriage, 11, 95 
Alexander the Great, 266 
Alexander, Pope, Election, 176 
Alexandrina Paulovna, wife of 

Archduke Joseph, 10 n. 
Alexis I., Emperor, 192 
Alfold, The (Lowlands), 64, 198, 251 
Costumes, 286 
Described, 285 seq. 
Orchards and Vineyards, 241 
Peasant Life on, 286 seq, 
Alfold Villages, 285, 288 
AH Pasha, 134, 135, 137 seq. 
Almakerek, 118 
Almas Cave, 276 

Almos, Father of Arpad, the founder 
of the Hungarian State, story 
of birth, 15 
Alps, sight of, 198 


u 2 


Alps, snow-clad, 261 
Alsace, 4, 58 

Andrassy Family, cradle home of, 
Count Julius, birthplace, 234 
General, 225, 226 
Andrew I., King of Hungary, 43, 

Andrew II., King of Hungary, 177 
Characteristics, 216 
" Golden Bull," 43, 62 
Joined Crusade, 191 
Marriage, 43, 193 
Andrew III., King of Hungary, 44, 

62, 171 
Andrew of Anjou, murdered, 45 
Anjou, House of, Kings of Hungary, 
45. See Charles Robert and 
Louis the Great 
Anna Comnena, account of Cru- 
sades, 192 
Apa, 92 

Apaffy Family, 12, 42, 98, 130 seq. 
Anne, Princess, wife of Michael, 
130, 132, 134 seq., 144 
Stories of, 145, 146 seq. 
George, 130 
Istvan, 142 

Michael, Prince of Transylvania, 
130, 169 
Characteristics, 130, 131 
Court Jester, story of, 146 seq. 
Policy, 132, 133 
Prisoner in Crimea, 130, 141 
Rule, 144 

Story of election, 134 seq. 
Apaffy II., 155 
Last Prince of Transylvania, 116 
Marriage, 116, 129; story of, 

117 seq. 
Posesssions passed to Bethlen 
Family, 133 
Apaffy, Princess, her family con- 
nection with Denes Banff y, 177 

Arad, 181 

Aranyos River, bridge over, 272 

Arnolf, Emperor, alliance with 

Arpad, 204 
Arnuld, the " Bad," 185 
Arpad, Conqueror of Hungary and 
Founder of Dynasty, 16, 181, 
235, 246 : 
Alliance with Emperor Arnolf, 

Legend of Zalan's lands, 237 
Proclaimed Hereditary Duke of 
Hungary, 238 
^ Takes Munkacs, 237 
Arpad Dynasty, 12 

Extinction of male branch, 44, 62 
Kings, Hungary under, 43 seq. 

See Names of Kings 
Marriage alliances, 12, 13 
Pretenders in female line, 45 
Arva Castle, 208 

Attila, Emperor of the Huns, 
" Scourge of God," 263 
Empire, 14 
Sword, 274 ; carried by Arpad, 

Worships Yesten, 263, 274 
Augusta, Princess, wife of Frede- 
rick I., King of Wiirtemberg, 8 
Augustus, Emperor, 266 
Augustus Zigismond, King of 

Poland, 101 
Aurelian, Emperor, 268 
Austrians' lost Italian Possessions, 

Austro-Prussian War, 61 


Babenberg, Abbess of, 222 
Babenberg, House of, 44 
Babuluska Village, 170 
Bdcsi, " Uncle," how used 
Hungarian, 253 n. 



Badacsony Wines, 201 
Bajazet, Sultan, 48 
Bakony district, 197 

Forest, 202 
Balaton Fiired, 200 

Maurice Jokai on, 197 
Balaton Lake, 186 

Fish, 201 
Balaton Lake District, 197 seq. 
Castles and Ruins, legends of, 

Revolt in, 17 
Wines, 201 
Balazsfalva village, 126, 127 
Baldwin of Flanders, in Hungary* 

Banat, the, 268 

Serbs in, 60 
Banfly Family, 176 seq. 
Branches, 176 
Meaning of name, 176 
Palace at Kolozsvar, 270 
Relics, 177 
Banfly, Agnes, wife of Laszlo IV., 
Comes, Lord Lieutenant of Bakony 

district, 176 
Denes, Lord Lieutenant of Kolos, 
138, 143, 144 
Ancestor of Dessewffy Family, 

Executed, 131, 177 
Dezs6, Baron, sketch of career, 

Gtyorgy, Count, Governor of 
Transylvania, 115, 177 
Missions to England, 177 
Gyorgy (1747-1822), Governor of 

Transylvania, 178 
Istvan (Stephen), Ban of Sla- 

vonia, 176 
Lukacs (Lucas), Archbishop in 

Hungary, 176 
Michael (Miklos), 120, 125, 176 

Banffy Hunyad Village and District 

Baranya County, 34, 35 
Bardossy Family, 185 
Bardossy, Mme. Johanna de (nee 

Countess Rhedey), 259 
Barcsay, Akos, Prince of Transyl- 
vania, 68 
Baringo, Lake, 151 
Barlang Liget, 209 
Barfcfa, relics, 227 
Bathor Village, 246 
Bathory, House of, 42, 98, 99, 

Bathorys of Gagi, descended from 

House of Aba, 98 
Bathorys of Gutkeld, 98, 99 seq. 

Estates, 100 
Bathory, Andreas, 100 

Andreas Ban of Belgrade, 100 
Andreas, Cardinal Prince, killed, 

Anna, accused of witchcraft, 

Anna, Princess, wife of Stephen 

Bathory, 102 
Apos, 99 

Christopher, Prince of Transyl- 
vania, 102 
Elizabeth, story of, 108, 207 
Gabriel, Prince of Transylvania, 
104 seq. 
Assassinated, 107 
Characteristics, 104 
Court at Fehervar, 104 
Istvan III., Palatine of Hungary, 

Miklos, 99 
Miklos III., 100 

Szofia (Sophia), wife of George 
Rakoczy II., 107, 170 
Persecuted Protestants, 107 
Version of Bible, 108 
Wealth, 108 



Bathory — continued 

Stephen (Istvan), Prince of 
Transylvania, 51 
King of Poland, 101, 167 
Marriage, 102 
Reorganised Poland, 102 
Zigismond : 

Rule in Transylvania, 103, 
Batfchanyi, 93 

Batu Khan invades Hungary, 62 
Bavaria, 58 
Bazias, 283 
Bears, 241, 264 
Beczko Castle, 207 
Beka, wife of Attila, 263 
Bela I., King of Hungary, 41, 43 
Bela II., King of Hungary, 43 
Bela III., King of Hungary, 191 
Married Margaret of France, 

Sends contingent to Crusade, 192 
Bela IV., King of Hungary, 62, 177, 
Takes refuge in Szent-Marton, 

Wars, 44 
Beldi, Pal, 143, 147, 148, 149, 150 

Banished, 131 
Belgrade, the key to Hungary, 55, 

Berchtold, Count and Countess, 183 
Bereg County, 240 
Beregszasz, capital of Bereg, 

Berlin, 58 

Treaty, 282 
Berne founded, 3 
Berthold of Z^hringen, Duke of 

Carinthia, 1 
Berthold II. of Zahringen, Duke of 

Helvetia, 1 
Berthold IV., 3 
Berthold V., founder of Berne, 3 

Beszterczbanya, Parliament at, 

Bethlen Family, 42, 98, 133 
Castles, 109, 241, 271 
Characteristics, 108 seq. 
Residence at Kolozsvar, 270 
Village, 271 
Bethlen, Andreas, scholar, Minister 
of Agriculture, 116 
Bela III., 109 
Catherine, Princess, wife of 

Gabriel Bethlen, 113, 114 
Druzsina, wife of Ferencz 

Rhedey III., 68 
Elek, printing-press, 114 
Farkas, Historian and Diploma- 
tist, 114 
Farkas, Count, 116 
Gaboi (Gabriel), Prince of Tran- 
sylvania, 53, 66, 88, 106, 109, 
110 seq. 
Characteristics, 110, 111, 112, 

Defends Protestants, 112, 113 
Invaded Hungary and obtains 

Crown, 111 
Marriages, 113 
Monuments, 113 
Ilona, wife of Apafify II., 

Romance of, 116, 117 seq. 
Janos, Count, National Theatre 

and Museum, 116 
Miklos : 

Characteristics, 114 
Diploma Lepoldinum, 114 
Foundations and Literary 

Works, 115 
Takes Part in Thokoli rising, 
Sandor, Count, studs, 109 
Stephen, abdicated, 114 
Betyars (Tramps), 289 
Bible, new versions, 108, 112 
Bihar County, 90, 257, 258, 259 



Birch-trees, 289 
Black Sea, 283 
Blair, Hugo, sermons, 93 
Boars, 241 

Wild, 264 
Bocskay Family, 184 

Birthplace, 234 
Bocskay, Istvan, Prince of Tran- 
sylvania, 53, 66 
Bodrog Olaszi Castle, 234 
Bohemia, 58, 204 

Invaded, 37, 38 

Revolt in, 111 
Bohemians defeated at White 

Mountains, 7, 112 
Boleslaw I., King of Poland, 
"Chrobry," "Trinkbier," 17 n., 
26, 36, 37, 40, 102 

Characteristics, 40 

Government, 40 

Invaded Bohemia, 37 

Reception of Otto III., 37 

Wars, 37 seq. 
Bolingbroke, Lord, 164, 165 
Boris, Prince, led Hungarian con- 
tingent to Holy Land, 192 
Bornemisza, Anne. See Apaffy, 

Bors, 204 

Borsa, Tartar horde at, 243 
Borszek, health resort, 276 
Bosnia, 44, 282 

Annexation of, 183 

Conquered, 45 

Retaken, 55 
Boss-Waldeck, Count de, 225 
Brandenburg, Elector of, 113, 

Brandenburg sold, 231 
Brass6, situation, 280 
Brindisi, 221 
British East Africa, 151 
Bruno, Prince, 31 
Bubics, Bishop, at Kassa, 232 

Buda, Budapest, 49, 91, 205, 232, 
249, 250, 251, 285 

Agricultural Museum, 280 

Approach to, 187 

Captured, 50 

Cliff, St. Gellert, 21 

Francis Joseph I. crowned at, 

Occupied by Turks (1541), 63 

Recaptured (1686), 55, 154 

Situation and surroundings, 196 
Buda, Pasha of, 145 
Budavar, Attila's Palace, 263 
Bug River, 39 
Bulgaria, 44, 48 

Conquered, 3, 45 
Butler, Bishop, " Lives of the 

Saints," quoted, 29 
Buzilla, Queen of King Kalman 



Cannstatt, 3 
Canute, King, 31 

Caraffa, General, hangs Hun- 
garians, 227 
Leads army to Transylvania, 
133, 154 
Carbuncles in the Tatra, 210 
Carlist Campaign, 152 
Caroline, Queen of England, 8 
Carpathian Mountains, 16, 83, 87, 
186, 205, 235, 236, 241 
Grandeur of, 209 
Northern slopes, 204 
Casimir I., King of Poland, 41 
Casimir III., the Great, 45, 46 
Catherine de Medici, 102 
Catherine (Paulovna), wife of 
William of Wiirtemberg, 9 



Cattle, herds of, 286 

Caucasian Mountains, 236 

Cetnje Castle, 108 

Chamois, 264 

Charles Alexander, Duke of Wiir- 

temberg, 7 
Charles, King of Wiirtemberg, 

Marriage, 9 
Charles III., Emperor, Pragmatic 

Sanction, 57 
Charles V., Emperor, 6, 50, 224 
Charles IX., King of France, 102 
Charles Eugene, Duke of Wiirtem- 
berg, 7 
Charles of Lorraine, Prince, 54 
Charles, Prince of Anhalb, 10 n. 
Charles Robert of Anjou, King of 
Hungary, 45, 62, 100 
Marriage, 45 
Remodelled State, 45 
Charles William Ferdinand, Duke 

of Brunswick, 8 
Charlotte, wife of Duke Geza, 25 
Charlotte, wife of Samu Aba, 16, 

17 andn., 26, 105, 259 
Charlotte, wife of William I. of 

Wiirtemberg, 9 n. 
Charlotte Matilda, Princess, wife 
of Frederick I., King of Wiir- 
temberg, 8 
Chivalry in Poland, 36 
Christian of Brunswick, 7 
Christina, daughter of Eadward 

and Agatha, 31 
Christopher, Duke of Wiirtemberg, 6 
Clement VIII., Pope, 103 
Coins, in Dacia, 266 
Colbert, 165 
Cologne, 225 
Colts, Hungarian, 255, 256 

On Alfold, 285 
Conde, Princess, salon, 165 
Conrad I., Emperor, 191 
Conrad II., invaded Hungary, 30 

Conrad III., Emperor, 2 
In Holy Land, 3 
Welf and Guelph, struggle 
against, 43 
Conrad of Z&hringen, 1, 2 

Alliance with Henry the Lion, 2 
Conradin de Wirtemberc (1090), 3 
Conradin, Emperor, 1 
Constantina of Aragon, wife of 
King Imre and afterwards of 
Frederick II., 193 
Constantinople, St. Stephen's 

Foundations, 28 
Corn in the Alfold, 285, 286, 288 
Cossea, coins at, 266 
Cotyso, King of Dacia, invaded 

Italy, 267 
Cracow, 102 

Cathedral, lance of St. Maurice, 
Crimea, captives in, 70, 73, 81, 83, 

Croatia, 43 

Bans of, 60, 93 
Conquered, 43 
Crown of St. Stephen, 28, 181 
Crusaders in Hungary, 41, 188, 190 
Marriages with Hungarians, 192 
Csaba, son of Attila, ancestor of 
House of Aba, 20, 264 
At Byzantine Court, 14 
Osak, Mate, 171, 206, 230 
Csaky, Family of, 143 
Csaky, Ladislaus, 121, 125, 143, 177 
Csanad, town, 21 
Csechs, language, 205 
Csejte Castle, story of Elizabeth 

Bathory, 207 
Cserei, Ilona, wife of Baron Mikl6s 

Wesselenyi, 172 
Cserna stream, 282 
Csetek Castle, 227 



Csik-Szent-Damokos, Battle at, 103 Danube River — continued 

Under Ban of the Church, 104 
Csikos (cowboys), 251, 252, 253, 
256, 285, 288 

Costume, 257 
Csikszerda 72 

Csokonai, Michael, Poet, 91, 251 
Csorba Lake, 209 
Cucumbers, 287 
Czabanka assumes name of 

Rhedey de Szent Marton, 62 
Czenk Mountain, 280 
Czevicze Stream, Origin, 25 


Dabrowka, Princess, wife of Miczis- 

lawL, 17 n, 36 
Dacia, Kingdom of, 113 

Conquered by Trajan and 

divided, 268 
History, 265 seq. 
Dacia Mediterranea, present Tran- 
sylvania, 268 
Dacia Ripensis, present Banat, 268 
Dacia Transalpina, present Wal- 

lachia and Moldavia, 268 
Dacians, 261, 262 

Of Transylvania, 266 seq. 
Daco-Romans, Waiwode and Ruling 

Count, 242 
Daco-Roumanians, 264 
Dalmatia, 44, 45, 59 

Annexed to Hungary, 43 
Damakos, Ilka : 

Deputy to Assembly, 75 seq. 
Interview with George Rakoczy, 

Leads Four Thousand Women, 
71 seq. 
Damakos, Thomas (Tamas), captive 

in Crimea, 70, 83 
Dandolo, Doge, 191 
Danube River, 64 

Aba, territories near, 186, 187 seq. 

Course, 283 

Frankish Settlements, 236 
Inscriptions, 284 
Iron Gate Bridge, 267, 268, 280, 
Danube Canal opened, 281 
Dantzig, 163 
d'Armagnac, Louis, 165 
De Gramont, 165 
De l'lsle, Founder of Family, 35 
Deak, Francis, 93 

Compact with Francis Joseph l. r 
Decebalus, King of Dacia, 267, 

Debreczen, Capital of Hungarian- 
Plains, 67, 91, 181, 250 seq. 
Inhabitants and Costumes, 251 
National Assembly at, 60, 250 
Typical Hungarian town, 250 
Debreczen Fair, 92, 251 seq. 
Grain and Cattle Market, 252 
National Costumes, 252, 253 
Dees, 72, 73, 271 
Demeter, Aba, 62 
Dessewffy Family, 177 
Detonata, Gold at, 278 
Deva Castle, 280 
Dieppe, 165 
Dioszeg, 82 

Diploma Lepoldinum, 114 
Dobo, Stephen, 52 

Defence of Eger, 247, 248 
Dobsina, Ice-Caves, 211 
D'Ofterdingen, Heinrich, 214 
Domitian, Emperor, 267 
Don River, 15 

Dorothea Sophia (Maria Feodo- 
rovna), wife of Czar Paul L, 9' 
Dregely, 52 
Dromicoietes, Ruler of Thrace,. 

Ducks, wild, 289 




Eadgar, the Aetheling, 32 
Eadmond Ironside's children in 

Hungary, 30 
Eadmund, son of Eadmund Iron- 
side, 31 
Eadward, son of Eadmund Iron- 
sides, Marriage, 31, 33 
Eadward the Confessor, 31 
Eard<5 Szent Gyorgy Castle, 94, 95 

Eberhard the Illustrious, of Wiir- 

temberg, 4 
Eberhard III., Duke, exiled, 7 
Eberhard IV., Duke, 7 
Eberhard V. (" im Bart "), Duke of 
Wiirtemberg, 4, 5 
Assumed Teck Arms, 11 
Founded University of Tubingen, 

Pilgrimage to Holy Land, 5 
Ebesfalva, 134, 142 
Ecsed Estate and Castle, 100 
Ede, Duke of Hungary, Chief of 
Tribe of Aba, 16, 204 
Ancestor of Queen Mary, 237 
Obtained County of Heves, 246 
Progenitor of Rhedey family, 

Legends of, 14 
Territories, 238 
Edward VII. , Visit to Austria- 
Hungary, 201 
Eger, Battle, 52 

Eger Fort, key to Upper Hungary, 
Defended by Dobo and Rhedeys, 
247, 248 
Eisenach, 213, 218 

Rivalry of Poets, 213 seq. 
St. Elizabeth driven from, 221 
Eleanor of Aquitaine, 193 
Elisabeth, Empress of Austria, 249 
^Visits to England, 259 

Elisabeth, wife of Langraf Louis of 

Thuringia. See St. Elizabeth 

of Hungary 
Elizabeth, Queen of Poland, 232 
Elizabeth, widow of Albert II., 

Queen of Hungary, 63 
Pledged Hungarian Crown, 47 
Elod, Duke of Hungary, 16 
ElSpatak, health resort, 276 
Embroideries of Banny Hunyad,269 
Emese, wife of Ogyek, 15 
English Aethelings in Hungary ; 

202. See Eadgar, Eadward, 

Eadmund, etc. 
Eperies, 227 
Erdo Szent Gyorgy, Birthplace of 

Queen Mary's Grandmother, 

274 seq. 
Church, Memorial Tablet, 275 
Rejoicings at Coronation, 276 
Eschenbach, Walter von, as shep- 
Esslinger, 3 [herd, 5 

Estrid, Princess, 17 n. 
Esztergom, Seat of Prince Primate 

of Hungary, 21, 27, 194 
Castle and Cathedral, 195 
Refugees at Court at, 30 
Eugene of Savoy, Prince, 164, 165 


Fadrusz, John, designed Matthias 

Corvinus Monument, 270 
Fairies, 210, 211 
Feher (White Lake), 209 
Fehervar, Court at, 104 
Ferdinand I. of Habsburg, King of 
Hungary and Bohemia (also 
German Emperor), 99, 100, 101, 
130, 260 
Marriage, 50 
Ferdinand II., Emperor, 167 
Guarantees rights of Protes- 
tants, 66 
Persecuted Protestants, 53 



Ferdinand III., Emperor, persecuted Frederick I., Emperor, Crusades, 3 

Protestants, 53 
Ferdinand V. Emperor, reforms, 

Ferdinand, King of Bulgaria, 

" Count de Murany," 171 
Ferdinand, Prince of Coburg, 171 
Feriz Bey, 144, 158 
Festetich Family, 132, 200 

Count George founded Academy 

of Agriculture, 200 
Count Tassilo, Castle, 200 
Fogaras Castle, 79, 155 

Government Stud, 279 
Fogas of Lake Balaton, 201 
Forests with big game, 241 
Forgach Family, 244 
Francis, Duke of Saxe-Coburg- 

Saalfeld, 10 
Francis, Duke of Teck. See Teck> 

Duke of 
Francis I., Emperor, King of 
Hungary, 59, 90 
Marriage, 10 
Francis Joseph I., Emperor-King, 
Apostolic King of Hungary, 60 
Crowned King of Hungary, 61, 

Descent, 13 

Opens Danube Canal, 281 
Frangepan, Count, executed, 54 
Frater, Mme. Bela de {nee Countess 

Rhedey), 97, 259 
Frater, Lorant de, 97, 259 
Frederick Barbarossa, Emperor, 2, 4 
Frederick of Hohenstaufen, Em- 
peror, 1 
Frederick I., King of Wiirtemberg, 
Ally of Austria and Napoleon, 8 
Founded Kingdom of Wiirtem- 
berg, 6 
Marriages, 8 
Travels, 7 

Passage through Hungary, 191, 
Frederick II., the Great: 
Defeated in Bohemia, 58 
Marriage, 193 
Frederick III., Emperor, 9, 48, 
Attitude towards Hungarians, 48 
Frederick V., Elector Palatine, 7, 
Expelled from Bohemia, 112 
Frederick, Eugene, Duke of Wiir- 
temberg, 8, 9, 10 
Ancestor of Royal House, 8 
Frederick the Handsome, of Austria, 

Frederick, last Duke of House of 

Babenberg, 44 
Frederick the One-eyed, Duke of 

Swabia, 3 
Free Cities, 212 
Frischler, Jakob, comedy, 4 
Fiilek Fort, 65, 67, 99, 247 
Fuzes Abony, 20 


Gad, Prince, territories, 236 

Galgocz, 204 

Galgocz Castle, 206 

Garibaldi Campaign, 152 

Gellert, Bishop, Martyr, 21 

Gelon, Prince of Wallachians in 
Transylvania, 236 

Geoffrey, Count of Anjou, 32 

George V., King, Hungarian Blood, 
Saxe-Coburg Kohary relations, 

German Emperor, Supremacy over 
Transylvania as King of Hun- 
gary, 132, 155 

German War-Cry, 2 



Germans, 241 

At Pozsony, 189 
Gertrude of Meran, wife of Andrew 

IL, 43, 193, 216, 217, 218 
Geza, 1st Christian Duke of Hun- 
gary of House of Arpad, 17n.,25 
Sketch of, 25 
Geza I., King of Hungary, 41, 99 
Geza II. , King of Hungary, 191 

Defeated Leopold of Austria, 43 
Gipsies, 287 
Gisela, wife of St. Stephen, 17 n., 18, 

33, 34 
Palace and Court at Veszprem, 

Gnesen, Assembly at, 40 
Godfrey de Bouillon in Hungary, 

41, 190 
Godfrey de Villehardouin, 191 
Godollo, country residence of 

Francis Joseph, 249 
Gold in Transylvania, 278 
" Golden Bull," like Magna Charta, 

Gomor, stalactite cave, 227 
Goths, 261 

Gottschalk, leader of Crusaders, 190 
Gratz, 95 
Greeks, 261 
Guelph Dynasty, 1 
Guelph Legend, 185 
Guelph, House of, Marriages with 

Arpad Dynasty, 12 
Gulyds (Herdsmen), 251, 256 
Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, 112 
Gylafehervar, Garrison, 79 
Gyongyosy, Poet, " The Venus of 

Murany," 170 
Gyo'r, 20, 21, 202, 203 

Samu Aba, defeated at, 189 
Gyula, Prince of Transylvania, 25 

Revolts, 29 
Gyula Fehervar, 280 
Church, tombs in, 278 

Habsburg Dynasty, 49 seq. 

Connection with Wiirtembergs, 

Religious persecutions, 64 
Hatvan, Plains near, 249 
Hedwiga, Duchess of Silesia and 

Poland, 216 
Hedwiga, Queen of Poland, wife of 

Uladislaus Jagello, 46, 47, 231 
Heiszler, German Commander-in- 
Chief, 157, 158 
Taken Prisoner and exchanged 

for Ilona Zrinyi, 158 
Hellgref, Henry, hostel at Eisenach, 

Helvetia, Duchy of, 1 
Helvetian Confession of Faith, 66 
Henry I., of England, Marriage, 

32 n. 
Henry II. of England, 32 n., 193 
Henry II. , Emperor, 17 n., 31, 38 
Henry III., Emperor, 17 n., 18, 19, 

43, 187 
Defeated Samu Aba at Gy6r, 189 
Henry IV., Emperor, 1 
Henry V., Emperor, 32 n. 
Henry of Anjou, elected King of 

Poland, 102 
Henry the Lion, 2 
Henry the Proud (Guelph), 1, 43 
Henry the Raspin, Landgrave of 

Thuringia, 221, 222 
Hercules Fiirdo, watering-place, 

Hermann, Duke, Landgrave of 

Thuringia, 213, 215, 216, 218 
Death, 219 

Embassy to King of Hungary, 217 
Hermione, wife of Archduke 

Joseph, 10 n. 
Heves County, Land of the Rhedeys, 

245, 246 seq. 



Hohenstaufen Dynasty, 1 
Queens of Hungary, 12 
Three Daughters of, 216 
Hohenstein, Countess of, 11 
Hohenstein, Amalia and Claudia, 

Countesses of, 96 
Hohenzollern Family, acquired 

Brandenburg, 231 
Hohnel, Louis, 151 
Holstein, 38 
Homonna Family, 247 
Honorius, Emperor, 14 
Horse, Transylvanian, 265 
Hortobagy Puszta, 255 seq. 
Horvath, Johanna, Baroness Odon 
de (nee Rhedey), 96, 97, 175, 
Daughters, 97 
Estates in Bihar, 259 
Huba, Duke, 16, 181, 182 

Ancestor of Szemere Family, 
Hull, 163, 164 
Hungary : 

Battles against Turks, 52 
Connection with House of Anjou, 

Conquest of, 16 
Crown, 28, 181 
Crusaders in, 190 seq. 
Free Cities, 212 
Heart of, 250 seq. 
Heroes, 13, 64 
In state of siege, 61 
Internal Troubles, 46, 50 
Invasion of 66 
Kings crowned at Pozsony, 

Language, 59, 61 
Literature, foundation of, 

Lowlands. See Alfold 
National Costume, 251, 252, 


Hungary — continued 
National Heroes, 5l 
Northern Highlands, History of 

204 seq. 
N. E., Birthplace of Heroes, 234 
Oppressions by German Emperors, 

Parliament, 59, 60 
Partition of, 260 
Plains, 244, 249, 250 
Plan to " Magyarise," 179 
Poland united with, 46 
Pragmatic Sanction, 57 
Queens of, 12 
Refuge for German Feudal Lords, 

Reorganisation of, 62 
Ruled by its own laws, 51 
Sketch of History, 42 seq. 
Sovereigns identical with those 

of Austria, 51 
Struggle against Religious Perse- 
cutions, 52 seq. 
Tartar Invasion, 44, 194 
Terra Britannorum, 34 
War of Independence. See that 

Hungarian Academy of Sciences 

founded, 153 
Danube towns, 187 seq. 
Folk-lore, 22 
Marriages with Crusaders, 192 

Hungarians, 241 

Defeated at Mohacs, 49 
Huns, 261 
Descendants of, 264, 265 
Empire of, 16, 236 
Worship of Yesten, 263 
Hunyady, Elizabeth, wife of John, 

Hunyadi, Janos (John) : 
Defeated three Sultans, 48 
Heroic valour, 263 


Hunyadi, Janos. — continued 

Sketch of, 47 

Sword, 99, 278 

Tomb, 278 

Vajda Hunyad Castle, 280 

Victory over Turks, 273 
Huszt Estate, 69 
Huszt Fort, 67, 83, 84, 85, 241 
Huszt Town, 83, 84, 85 


Iglo, 213 

Illustrations, 92 

Imre, King, 191, 193 

Inczedi, Baroness, 96 

Insigered, wife of Yaroslav the 

Great, 17 n. 
Iron Gate, Bridge over Danube. See 

Danube, Iron Gate 
Irene, wife of John II., 192 
Isabella, Queen of Hungary, Grave, 

Istria, 59 

Italy invaded by Dacians, 267 
Ivan, Czar, defeated, 102 
Iza River, 241 

Legend of Origin, 242 seq 


Jagello or Jagyello, Polish Dynasty, 

13, 46, 101 
James I. of England, 7, 111 
Jasomirgot, Marriage, 43 
Jerusalem, St. Stephen's founda- 
tions, 28 
Jesuits, 107, 112, 113, 159 
Johanna, Queen of Naples, 45 
Johannson of Wiirtemberg, 3 
John II., " Byzantine Marcus 
Aurelius," 192 

John of Habsburg ("The Parri- 
cide"), 5 
John Frederick, Duke of Wurtem- 

berg, 7 
Jokai, Maurice, 269 

" A. Damokosak," Siege of Four 
Thousand Women quoted, 70 
Birthplace, 194 
On Apaffy's election as Prince, 

134 seq. 
On Balaton Fiired, 197 
On Marriage of Ilona Bethlen, 

117 seq. 
Story of Princess Apaffy, 145,. 
146 seq. 
Court Jester, 146 seq. 
Ferencz Rhedey and Taltossy,. 
83 seq. 
" White Lady," 226 
Joseph, Archduke, Palatine of Hun- 
gary, 91 
Marriages, 10 and n. 
Joseph L, Emperor, 56, 160 
Joseph II., Emperor, 173, 178 
Emancipated Peasantry, 58 
Josika, Baron, historian, 269 
Judith, wife of Boleslaw I., 17 n», 

Juhdsz (Shepherd), 256 
Jurisics, Miklos, 51 

Kaba, King Aba's servant, 24 
Kalman King of Hungary, 12, 41, 
188, 190 
" Book Bang," 43 
Queen, 192 
Kardm (Huts), 256 
Karolyi Family, 183, 247 

Ancestors settled in Hungary, 

Estates, 183, 184 
Possessions in Szatmar, 244 



Karolyi, Commander-in-Chief, 161, 
Count, married Hanna Szechenyi, 

Alois, Count, Austro-Hungarian 

Ambassador in London, 183 
Alois, Countess, 183 
Micz, Count and Countess, legend 

of, 184 
Nandina, Countess Berchtold, 
Kassa, Capital of Upper Hungary, 
66, 227 
Account of, 230 
Charters granted to Rhedey 

Family, 231 
Fortified Castle, 230 
Inhabitants, 232, 233 
Jesuit Church at, 107 
Life and Costumes at, 232, 

Meeting-Place for Kings of Hun- 
gary and Poland, 230 
Kassa Cathedral, 232 
Kazan defiles, 283 
Kazinszky, Poet, 181 
Kecskemet, peasant town, 286, 

Kerne ny, Family, 138 
Janos, Prince of Transylvania, 
70, 130, 136, 139, 143, 144 
Slain, 144 
Kenea, Mount, 151 
Kenyermez6, Plains, Kinizsi's 

victory over Turks, 279 
Keresztesmez6 (Plains of the 

Crusaders), 273 
Kesmark, 213 

Keszthely, Town and Castle, 200 
Khan of Crimea, 70, 71 
Khirghizian Steppes, 236 
Khuen-Hedervary, Count, 152, 178 

Countess, 152 
Kiev captured, 39 

Kilimanjaro, 151 
Kinizsi, heroic valour, 263 
Story of, 199 

Victory over Turks at Kenyer- 
mezo, 279 
Kircheim, 4 
Kis Rede, 247 
Kis, Selyk, Turkish Headquarters, 

135, 136, 140, 142 
Kisfaludy, Poet, 199 
Klara, wife of Baron Istvan 

Radak, 93 
Klingsohr, 217 

At Eisenach, 214, 216 
Prophesies St. Elizabeth's Birth, 
215, 216 
Knox, John, at Kassa, 232 
Kohary Family, 247 
Kohary, Prince Antal, Chancellor 

of Hungary, 171 
Kolos, County, 177 
Kolozsvar, Capital of Transylvania, 
90, 93, 138, 144 
Cathedral, 269 
Erdely Museum, 270 
Garrison, 79 
Palaces, 270 

Protestant Church at, 96 
Theatre, 270 
Kolozsvar Castle, Suspension 

House, National Theatre, 94 
Komarom, " Virgin Fortress of 

Hungary," 194 
Kondds (Swineherds), 253, 256 
Korea, 245 
Kornis Family, 42, 105, 185 

Seat at Nagy Varad, 259 
Kornis, Agnes, wife of Baldizsar 
Kornis, 105, 107 
Baldizsar, executed, 106 
William, settles in Hungary, 105> 
Kossuth, Louis, 59, 93, 181 
Birthplace, 234 



Kossuth, Louis — continued 

Declaration of Hungarian Inde- 
pendence, 251 

K<5szeg, Battle, 51 

Kozep Szolnok County, 173 

Kozma Family, 185 

Krass6 Szoreny, 280 

Krasznahorka Castle, 227 

Krivan Mt., 209 

Kucsek Pasha, 143, 144 

Kttkiilo Castle, 117, 118, 120, 147, 
148, 149 

Kun, Count, 141 

Kund, Duke, 141 

Kuns, herds of, 288 

Kupa, revolt against Christianity, 
Vanquished by Samu Aba, 197, 

Kyburg, Countess of, 3 

Ladislaus I., St. Ladislaus, 12, 41, 

192, 263 
Built Church at Nagy Varad, 

Conquered Croatia, 43 
Pattern of Hungarian Chivalry, 

Ladislaus Jagello, King of Poland, 

Ladislaus IV., alliance with 

Rudolph of Habsburg, 44 
Ladislaus V., King of Hungary, 110 
Ladislaus Posthumus, 47 
Lakos, Louis, 258 
Lance of St. Maurice, 37 
Laszlo, Philip, 232 
Lauter Valley, 11 
Lelesz, accompanied Aethelings to 

England, 35 
Lelesz Village, 246 


Lendva Fort, 176 
Leopold, Duke of Austria, 4 
Leopold I., Emperor, King 
Hungary, 56, 68, 154 

Conspiracy against, 169 

Death, 160 

Defeated (1146), 43 

Persecuted Protestants, 53 
Leopold II., Diet, 58 
Leslie, founder of Family, 35 
Lilie, Count Ferdinand Vetter von 

der, 97 
Lime Trees (100), 228 
Lipto Country, 208 

Krivan Mt., 2Q9 
Locse, 213 

White Lady of, 225 
Lomnicz Mt., 209 
Lonyay Family, 240 
Lonyay, Count Elemer de, 245 

Castle and Vineyards, 234 
Losonczy Family, 247 
Losonczy defends Temesvar, 52 
Louis, Duke of Wurtemberg, Grand- 
father of Francis, Duke of Teck, 
9, 10 
Louis IV., Duke of Thuringia, 

Death, 221 

Marriage, 44, 219, 220 
Louis the Great, King of Hungary, 
46, 63, 241 

Assembly at Kassa, 231 

Conquests, 45 

Expedition to Naples, 45 

United Poland with Hungary, 45, 
Louis II., King of Hungary, 49 
Louis VII., King of France, 191, 

Louis VIII. of France, 193 
Louis XIV., 6, 161, 162, 164, 165, 

Lysimachus, King of Thrace, 266 



Mad, wine, 234 

Magnus of Wiirtemberg, Duke, 7 
Magyar 6var, Agricultural Aca- 
demy, 187 
Magyars, 189, 212, 261, 264 
Arrive in Europe, 204 
Characteristics, 281 
Conquer Hungary and Transyl- 
vania, 16, 265 
Defended their Religious Free- 
dom, 64 
In Pannonia, 15 
Rally round Maria Theresia, 

Take Munkacs, 236, 237 
Wars, 41 
Maine, Duchesse du, 165 
Maintenon, Mme. de, 165 
Maize, 286 

Majusfalva Village, 117 
Manchuria, 245 
Maramaros County, 67, 240 
Maramaros Sziget, Position, Inhabi- 
tants and Costume, 241 
Marburg, 215, 223 

Church Relics, 223, 225 
Marcianus, Emperor, 15 
Margaret, wife of Bela III., 193 
Margaret, wife of Malcolm Canmore. 

See St. Margaret of Scotland 
Maria, wife of Louis II., 49 
Maria, wife of Count Imre Miko, 

Maria, wife of Duke Otto, 26 
Maria, Queen of Sigismund, 46, 63, 

Maria Beatrice, Archduchess, 90 
Maria Dorothea, wife of Joseph, 

Palatine of Hungary, 10 
Maria Theresia, " King " of Hun- 
gary, 153, 212 
Appeal to Hungarian Assembly, 
89, 188 


Maria Theresia — continued 

Bodyguard of Hungarian Nobles, 

Convened National Assembly, 57 
Rights disputed, 57 
Marie of Brandenburg, Princess, 124 
Marie, Princess, wife of Alex- 
ander II. of Wiirtemburg, 10 
Marki, Professor Sandor, " Life of 
Ferencz Rak6czy," 162 and n. 
Maros River, 82, 236, 267 
Maros Valley, 273 seq. 
Cornfields, 273 
Roman Relics, 273 
Maros Ujvar, salt mine, 273 
Maros Vasarhely, Szekely Capital 
of Transylvania, Castle and 
Teleki Library, 153, 273 
Mary Adelaide of Cambridge, Prin- 
cess. See Teck, Duchess of 
Matilda, wife of Henry I., 32 n. 
Matilda, wife of Henry V., and of 
Geoffrey, Count of Anjou, 32 n. 
Matra Mountains, 24, 246 

Forest, 17 
Matthias II., Emperor, 66, 111 
Matthias Corvinus, King of Hun- 
gary, 63, 199 
At Kassa, 231 
At Visegrad, 196 
Captured Vienna, 49 
Expelled Turks, 48 
Founded Huszar Regiment, 48 
Monument at Kolozsvar, 270 
Sword, 99 
Maximilian, Emperor, 5, 11, 102 

Ruled Hungary, 51 
Maximilian, King of Bavaria, 9n. 
Melons, 286, 287, 289 
Memrad, territories, 236 
Menfo, Battle, 20 
Mensdorff, Count Albert, Austro 
Hungarian Ambassador in 
London, 172 


Michael, Waiwode of Transylvania, 

Miczislaw I., 26, 40 ; Marriage, 17 n., 

Miczislaw II., 62 ; Marriage, 17 n. 
Miko, Count Imre, 93 
Mineral Springs, 276 
Mining Districts of Transylvania, 

277 seq. 
Mohacs, Battles, 49, 55, 100 
Moldavia, 157, 262 

Conquered, 45, 103 
Moldavia, Prince of, 145 
Moldavia, Princess of, at Court of 

Apaffy, 145 
Mongols, 264 

Invade Hungary, 62 
Montalembert, Count, " Life of 
St. Elizabeth," 213 
On Desecration of St. Elizabeth's 
Shrine, 223, 224 
Montbeliard, 8 
Moravia, 50, 204 
Moravia, Great, 236 
Moravian language, 205 
Mosony, Crusaders at, 188 
Mozart, 91 
Munkacs, Battle, 157 
Munkacs, first town taken by 

Hungarians, 236, 237 
Munkacs Fort, 159 
Munkacsy, Michael, painted ' ' Princes 
of Hungary paying homage to 
Arpad," 237 
Murany, Castle, 168, 227 
History of, 171 


Nadasd, ruin, 35 
Nadasdy, Palatin, executed, 54 
Nadasdy Family, 36 
Nadasdy, Ferencz, 169 
Nagy-Enyed, 272, 273 
Protestant College, 277 

Nagy Karoly, 244 
Nagy Rede, 247, 248 
Nagy Szolos, Battle, 144 
Nagy Szeben, Protestant Church, 279 
Nagy Varad, Capital of Bihar and 
the home of the Rhedey family, 
90, 91, 93, 107, 110, 126, 250, 
251, 257, 258, 259, 260 

Bishoprics and Church, 259, 260 

Grain and Wines, 260 

Incorporated with Transylvania, 

Inhabitants, 260 

Treaty of, 50, 260 
Nagy Varad Fort, 67 
Nagy Varad, Pasha of, 240, 260 
Nagyszeben, 143 
Nalaczi, noble, 141, 142 
Naples captured by Hungarians, 45 
Napoleon I., Manifesto to Hun- 
garians, 59 
Nicholas I., Czar, Marriage, 9 
Nijni Novgorod Fair, 92, 252 
Nikopoli, Battle of, 47 
Nograd, 247, 248 
Nyari Family, 247 
Nyir Bator Monastery, 100 
Nyitra Zolyom, Stronghold, 204 


Ogyek, Chief, 15 

Olaf, or James, Canute's half- 
brother, 31 

Oldenburg, Pagan Temples at, 3 

Olga, wife of Charles I., King of 
Wurtemberg, 9 

Onud, Duke, 16 

Oppeln, Duchy of, 103 

Orchards and Vineyards on Alfold, 

Orczy Family, 247 

d'Orczy, Baroness, 247 
" A Son of the Soil," 248 



Orleans Family, related to Wur- 

temberg Family, 10 
Oroszlanko Castle, 208 
Orseolo, Duke, 18 
Orseolo, Peter, Duke, 26 
Orsova, 283 

Crown of St. Stephen buried at, 

Danube at, 284 

Iron Gates near, 267, 268, 280, 
Otto I., Emperor, 26 
Otto III., Emperor, 17 n. 

Visits Boleslaw, 37 
Otto de Wittlesbach, Duke of 

Bavaria, 220 
Ottokar II., King of Bohemia, 
killed, 44 


Paget, John, " Hungary and Tran- 
sylvania," 274, 275 

Panna, Gipsy Czinka, composed 
Rakoczy March, 229, 230 

Pannonhalma, Benedictine Monas- 
tery, 26, 41, 189, 203 
Library, 190 

Pannonia (present Hungary), 15, 

Paprika (Red Pepper), 254 

Paris, 165 

Pata, Grandfather of Samu Aba, 

Paul I., Czar, Marriage, 9 

Pauline, wife of King William I. 
of Wiirtemberg, 9n. 

Peace Congress at Utrecht, 162, 

Peasant Life on Alfold, 286 seq. 

Peasantry emancipated, 58 

Pejacsewich Family, 93 

Perenyi Family, 247 

Peter, King of Hungary, 18, 19, 20, 

Peter of Aba Family, founded 

Monastery of Zast, 41 
Peter of Aba Family, Prince Abbot 

of Pannonhalma, 41 
Peter the Hermit, 190 
Peter I., Czar, 161, 162 
Petofi, Alexander, Lyric Poet, 
" A Csikos of the Alfold Plains," 

Death, 279 

Description of Alfold, 288 
Phenomenon, 75 

Philip Augustus of France, Mar- 
riage, 216 
Philip, Landgrave of Hesse, 6, 223, 

Phosphate Cave and Flowers, 277 
Piast, House of, 45, 46 

Allied with Arpad Dynasty, 12 
Pine Forests, 209 
Pine Trees, 269 
Poets, rivalry at Wartburg, 213 

Poland, 204, 240, 241 

Candidates for Throne, 102 
Division of, 212 
Plans for division of, 67 
United with Hungary, 46 
Poles : 

In Kassa, 232, 233 
In Kiev, 39 
In Ungvar, 236 
Polignac, 165 

Polish Cossack Regiment, 102 
Pompadour, Mme. de, 165 
Poprad, 208, 211 
Posteny, health resort, 206 
Pozsony (Pressburg), 216, 217 
Captured, 111 
Diet of, 57, 89 
Inhabitants and Wine, 189 
Kings of Hungary crowned at, 



Pozsony (Pressburg) — continued 

National Assembly at, 50 

Treaty of, 8, 121, 189 
Pragmatic Sanction, 57 
Pressburg. See Pozsony 
Protestants : 

Persecuted, 53, 54, 132 

Rights guaranteed, 53, 66, 112, 
161, 178 
Puszta of Hortobagy, 255 seq. 
Puszta (Farm), 248, 251, 286 
Puszta-Szer, Magyar's first 
Assembly at, 238 


Queen Anne, sympathy with 

Rakoczy, 162 
Queen Mary : 

Ancestors, 1, 9, 11, 12, 42, 159 
et passim 

Descended from House of Aba, 42 

Descended from the Dukes of 
Wtirtemberg, 9 

Grandmother, Claudine, Consort 
of Prince Alexander of Wtir- 
temberg, 11, 87 

Hungarian Descent, 12 seq., 42 
seq., 159 

Hungarian and E[ohenstaufen 
Ancestors, 193 

Memorial Tablet to her Grand- 
mother, 275 

Rhedey Relics, Ear-rings, 69 

Wtirtemberg and Hungarian An- 
cestors, 12 


Radak, Baron and Baroness Istvan, 

Railways in Hungary, 251, 252 
Rakoczy Family, 247 
Characteristics, 159 

Rakoczy, Ferencz I., 107, 156, 169, 
17G, 239 
Ferencz II., Prince of Tran- 
sylvania, 159 seq., 178, 225, 
227, 228, 230, 239 
Ashes brought back to Hun- 
gary, 166 
Birthplace, 234 
Castles, 235 
Diary, 165 

Estates confiscated, 184 
In Paris, 165 
Queen Anne's sympathy with, 

162 seq. 
Refused Throne of Poland, 161 
Rising, 56, 88 
Sketch of, 159 seq. 
Takes refuge in Poland, 162 
Tries to Free Transylvania, 133 
Wife, 159, 160 
Rakoczy, Gyorgy I. (George), 
Prince of Transylvania, 53, 67, 
78, 107, 114, 167 
Alliance with Sweden, 53 
Fund for Country when in 
danger, 78 
Rakoczy, George IL, Prince of 
Transylvania, 68, 79 seq., 130 
Defeats Turks, re-elected Prince 

of Transylvania, 83 
Dethroned, 80 

Expedition to Poland, 67, 70 
Rakoczy, Princess, 78, 80 
Rede Villages, 246, 247 
Rexia, wife of Miczislaw II., 17 n., 37 
Rezut Mountain, 210 
Rhedey Family, 14, 42 

Ancient Homes of, 186 seq. 
Associations in North- East Hun- 
gary, 240 
Associations with Nagy Varad, 

257 seq. 
Characteristics, 88 
Charters for bravery, 231 



Rhedey Family — continued 

Connected with House of Wiir- 

temberg, 95 
Cradle Home, Heves, 246 seq. 
" de Rede et Szent Marton," 194 
Estates, 67 ; in Hungary and 

Transylvania, 186 
Families connected with, 185 
Female members, 97 
Heroism, 247 
Left Hungary for Transylvania, 

Maternal Ancestors of Duke of 

Teck, 88 
Memory revered, 248, 275 
Origin, 62, 244 
Palace at Kolozsvar, 270 

Relics, 271 
Property divided, 247 
Rarely intermarried with Catho- 
lics, 183 
Relics, 69, 271 

Seat at Erdo Szent Gyorgy, 275 
Sketch of, 61 seq. 
Sporting retreat at Tatra- 

Lomnicz, tragedy at, 211 
Transylvanian Branch, 87 seq. 
Two Branches, 87 
Rhedey, Count Adam II., 88 
Count Adam III., Lord Lieu- 
tenant of Transylvania : 

Fortune, 92, 93 

Gifts to Nagy Varad, 93, 258 

President of Royal Curia of 
Transylvania, 258 

Wife's literary abilities, 93 
Countess Claudia, Consort of 
Prince Alexander of Wiir- 
temberg (Queen Mary's 
Grandmother), 94 

At Kolozsvar, 270, 271 

Birthplace, 274 

Countess of Hohenstein, 11 

Death, 91, 95 


Rhedey— continued 
de Szent Marton, 62 
Demeter, 63 
Dosa Miklos VI., 63 
Ferencz I., heroic defence at 

Eger, 64, 247 
Ferencz II., 108 

Expedition to Poland, 130 
Holds Fort of Fulek, 247 
Impeached, 65 

Residence at Nagy Varad, 258 
Ferencz III., Prince of Transyl- 
vania, 67, 74, 76, 80, 131, 
Estates at Bihar, 258 
Marriage and Estates, 68 
Story of Taltossy and, 83 
Ferencz V., 88 
Gabor, Count, 96 
lstvan IX., Count, 14, 88, 97 
Jakob I., homo regis, 63 
Janos I., 62 

Janos III., Waiwode of Transyl- 
vania, 63 
Janos V. , founded Transylvanian 

branch of Family, 87, 88 
Janos VII., Count, 89 

Battles against Prussia, 89 
Memorial Tablet, 271 
Janos X., Count, " Hanzi," 96 

Daughters, 96, 97 
Johanna, tiee Horvath, Baroness 

Julia, Countess. See Frater, 

Mme. de 
Klara, Baroness lstvan Radak, 

Lajos II., Count of the Realm, 87, 
90, 91 
As Lord Lieutenant, 90, 91, 

Characteristics, 91 
Poems, 91 


Rhedey — continued 

Laszlo IV., Count, 82, 131 
Diary, 68 
Marriage, 68 
Laszlo XIII., Count, Grandfather 
of Francis, Duke of Teck, 
Estate, 94 

Theatre at Kolozsvar, 270 
Laszlo XIII., Countess, 96 
Maria, Countess Imre Miko, 93 
Pal IV., " Miles Agriensis," 64 
Pal VIII., 88 
Peter I., 62 
Peter II. , 63 
Peter III., 63 
Sophie, Countess, 93 
Stephanie. See Wesselenyi, 
Baroness Istvan 
Rhine Scenery, 207 
Rimler, Charles, Burgomaster of 

Nagy Varad, 92, 258 
Robert Bruce, descent, 32 
Rodosto, 56, 158, 166 
Roman Colony near Veszprem, 

Relics, 202 
Roman Empire in Transylvania, 

Mementoes of, 268 
Romans, 261 

Rome, Church of St. Stephen, 27 
College and Hospice, 28 
Trajan Column, 265 
Roumania, 240, 262, 282, 283, 284 
Roumanian Boyars, 276 
Rozsnyo Castle, 227 
Rudolph I., Founder of House of 
Habsburg, 1, 4, 44 
Inherited Z&hringen Estates, 3 
Rudolph II., Emperor, 7, 65, 66 
Rudolph, Crown Prince, Lake 

named after, 151 
Rudolph, Margrave of Baden, 3 
Russia, Ducal House of, Queens of 
Hungary, 13 

Russia invaded Hungary, 60 
Ruthenians, 236 

S. A. Ujhaly, Capital of Zemplen, 
Situation, 235 
Saar Castle Legend, 23 seq. 
Saar Monastery, 20 
Saar Village and Abbey, 246 
St. Adelbert, Bishop of Prague, 25 
Patron Saint of Poland, arm of, 
St. Anna Lake, 276, 277 
St. Elizabeth of Hungary, wife of 
Louis IV. of Thuringia, 12, 44, 
177, 193, 212, 217, 219, 220 
Birth and Baptism, 216 
Characteristics, 219, 220, 222, 223 
Joins Order of St. Francis, 223 
Relics, 224, 225 
Sketch of Life, 213 seq. 
Sufferings, 221, 222 
St. Henry, Emperor (Henry II.), 30 
St. Jobb Fort, 67 
St. Ladislaus. See Ladislaus I. 
St. Margaret of Scotland, 13, 32 
Hungarian Origin, 35 
In Hungary, 202 
St. Martin Monastery, 27 
St. Stephen, first Christian King of 
Hungary, 12, 14, 28 
Baptism (Vajk), 25 
Born, baptised and crowned at 

Esztergom, 195 
Characteristics, 29 
Conquers Transylvania, 29 
Death, 18 
Foundations, 27 

Bishopric of Nagy Varad, 259 
Bishopric and Cathedral of 

Veszprem, 201 
Pannonhalma Abbey, 190 



St. Stephen — continued 
Laws, 28 

Legend of Birth, 27 
Marriage, 17 n., 18 
Miracles, 30 
Salamon, King of Hungary, 41, 43, 
Marriage 17 n., 43 
War of Succession, 41 
Salt Mines at : 
Maros Ujvar, 273, 
Salzkammergut, 242 
Szlatina, 242 
Torda, 272 
Samu Aba, King of Hungary, 12, 
17, 18 
Ancestor of Queen Mary, 263 
Battles against Emperor Henry 

III., 187 
Buried at Saar, 20 
Characteristics, 21 
Daughter Agatha, 35 
Defeated 20, 189 
Death, 20, 43 
Descendants, 41, 42 
Founds Abbey of Saar, 246 
In Bakony Forest, 202 
Introduced Christianity into 

Hungary, 17 
Invaded Germany, 19 
Marriage, 14, 16, 17 and n. 
Popularity, 19 
Reorganised State, 19 
Sketch of, 17 seq. 
Stories and Legends of, 21 seq. 
Treasures, 20 

Vanquished Kupa, 197, 199 
Sarmis, King, Gold Coins, 266 
Sarmisegethusa, 267 
Gold Coins at, 266 
Ruins, 268 
Saros, County of, 227 
Saros Patak, Town and Protestant 
College, 235 

Saxe-Coburg Kohary Family re- 
lated to King George and 
Queen Mary, 172 
Saxe-Coburg Kohary, Prince Philip 

of, 171 
Saxon Valley, 128 
Saxons in Transylvania, 264, 265 
Schreiber, Heinrich, 213, 216 
Segesvar, 143, 144 

Citadel and Churches, 279 
Servia, 48, 240, 282, 284 
Conquered, 45 
Reconquered, 55 
Waiwodes, 276 
Sheep, herds of, 286 
Sicily, Norman Kings of, Daughters 

Queens of Hungary, 13 
Sigismund, Roman Emperor, King 
of Poland and Hungary, 63, 
Built Kolozsvar Cathedral, 269 
Marriage, 46 
Pawns Free Cities, 212 
Sold Brandenburg, 231 
Sigmaringen, 4 
Silesia, Wars in, 37, 89 
Simon de Montfort, conduct to 

Hungary, 191 
Siofok, 197 
Slavs, 189 

Russian, 241 
Slovaks, 232, 233 

Characteristics and Customs, 

History of Country, 204 seq. 
Inhabitants and Language, 205 
Picturesque Attire, 205, 207 
Sophia, daughter of Otto de 
Wittlesbach, Duke of Bavaria, 
Duchess, 218, 220 
Spanish Succession, War of, 160 
Stephanie, Princess, Countess 
Lonyay, 234, 245 
Lake named after, 151 



Stephen V., connection with House 

of Anjou, 44 
Stone and Bronze Period, relics of, 

Strafford, Thomas Raby, Earl of, 

162, 164 
Stuttgart, 4 
Suleiman, Sultan, 239 

Concludes Peace with Emperor of 

Germany, 240 
Invades Hungary, 49 
March to Vienna, 51 
Sultan Mahomet IV., 68 
Defeated by Rakoczy, 83 
Irade to People of Transylvania, 
Sumeg Castle, 120 
Svatopluk, King of Moravia, 204, 

Sviatopolk, Duke, 17 n., 36, 38, 39 
Swabia, Duchy of, 1 
Swabia, Landgraves of, 213 
Swabia, story of White Lady, 225 
Sweden, English Aethelings in, 31 
Swiss towns, foundation of, 3 
Sylvester II., Pope, 28 
Szabolcs County, 244 
Szamos River, 236, 269 
Szamos Ujvar, 271 
Szamosajvar, Diet, 73, 74 
Szapary, Count, 117 
Szapolyai, John, King of Hungary, 
49, 50, 99, 100, 260 
Rules Transylvania, 49 
Treaty with Ferdinand I., 101 
Szapolyai, Zigismond. See Zigis- 

mond, King of Hungary 
Szaszvaros, 280 
Szatmar County, 85, 243, 244 
Szatmar Library, 62 
Szatmar, Town, Treaty, 56, 88, 161, 

Szeben, 138 
Szechenyi, Count Bela, 183 

Szechenyi, Hanna, Countess 

Karolyi, 183 

Szechenyi, Stephen, Count, 153, 173 

Creator of Modern Hungary, 284 

Szechi, Maria, wife of Bethlen and 

of Ferencz Wesselenyi II. , 

" Venus of Murany," 168 seq. 

Szeged women selling red pepper, 

Szekely, or Szeklers, 138, 141, 142, 
144, 264 
Attire, 265 
Szekely Mountains, 198 
SzSkesfehervar, Hungarian Kings 

crowned at, 50, 130, 197 
Szemere, 99 
Szemere Family, 181 
Descent, 181, 182 
Szemere, Attila, " Beau Brummel " 
of Hungary, 182 
Bertalan, President of Hungarian 
Assembly, 181 
Care of Crown of St. Stephen, 
Pal, Poet, 181 
Szemere Villages, 98 
Szent Marton (Saint Martin) Vil- 
lage, 194 
Szerencs, wine, 234 
Sziget, Maromaros 242 
Szigetvar, Battle, 52 

Hungarian Heroes at, 239 
Szigliget, story of Hills near, 200 
Szlatina salt mines, 242 
Szobieszky, John, King of Poland, 

Szondy, George, 52 


Taksony, grandson of Arpad, 184 
Taltossy, story of Ferencz Rhedey 

and, 83 seq. 
Tanya (Farm), 286 
Tar Valley Cliff, 25 



Tartar Hordes, 264 
At Borsa, 243 
In Heves, 246 
Tartars, incursions into Transyl- 
vania, 127 
Tartars invade Hungary, 44 
Tass, Duke, 16 
Tatra Fureds (3) ; health resorts, 

scenery, 208, 209, 211 
Tatra, Legends of, 209 seq. 
Tatra Mountains, 186, 208 
Tatra-Lomnicz, 211 
Tebernas (Huts for Inns), 254 
Teck, Burg of, 4 
Teck, Castle, 11 

Given to Counts of Wurtemberg, 1 1 
Teck, Ducal House of, passim 
Arms, 11 
Origin, 11 
Title, 11 
Teck, Francis, Duke of, his descent 
from the House of Wurtem- 
berg, 9, 10 
Grandfather and mother, 270 
Hungarian Descent, 12 
Marriage, 11, 95, 96 
Maternal Ancestors, 88 
Princess Mary, Duchess of, 
11, 69, 96 
Teck, Duke of (present), 69 
Teck, Prince Alexander, 69 
Teleki Family, 88, 151 seq. 
Castles, 241 

Characteristics, 152, 153 
Residence in Kolozsvar, 270 
Teleki, Adam, Count " Corneille 
Cidje," 153 
Damakos II., Count, 153 
Ferencz, Count, Poet, 153 
Flora, 156 
Geza, Count, 152 
Jozsef, Count, 153 

(2) Founded Library and 
Museum, 163 

Teleki— continued 

Michael, Chancellor, 151, 177 
Feud with Thokpli, 155, 156 

Killed, 158 
Policy, 131 
Sketch of, 154 
Samu, Count, explorer, 161, 153, 

Sandor, Count (2), 152 
Teleki Volcano, 152 
Temesvar, 52, 181, 285 
Temesvar, Pasha of, 260 
Temetveny Castle, 207 
Terra Britannorum in Hungary, 34 
Thirty Years' War, 7, 111, 113 
Thokoli Family, 247 
Thokoli, Imre, 155, 228 

Compared with Hannibal, 157 
Feud with Teleki, 156 seq. 
Invades Transylvania, 157 
Revolt under, 54, 239, 240 
Takes refuge in Turkey, 55, 158 
Tries to free Transylvania, 133 
Thrace, Governed by Lysimachus, 

Thuringia : 

Famine in, 220 
Picture of, 217 
Thuringians : 

Characteristics and Costume, 212 
Free Cities, 212 
In Kassa, 232 

Settlers in Hungary, 212 and n. 
Thurzo, Palatine Count, 108, 207 
Tihany, Benedictine Convent, 200 
Tisza (Theiss) River, 64, 113, 236, 
241, 267 
Irrigation, 255 
Legends of origin, 242 seq. 
Plains, 198 
Tisza Szeged, 286 
Tobacco, 286 
Tokaj, Battle, 99 



Tokaj wine, 234 

Tomaj-Aba, 22 

Torda, 268, 272, 273, 277 
Battle, 267 
Gold Coins, 266 
Roman Ruins, 272 
Salt Mines, 272 

Torda Glen, 272 

Toroczko, village people, 272 

Trajan, Emperor, expeditions 
against Dacia,267, 268, 273, 284 

Transylvania, " Pearl of the Hun- 
garian Crown," 240,241, 261 seq. 
Alpine Vegetation, Orchards and 

Fruit, 264 
Annexed to Hungary, 29 
Bastion against Turkish Inva- 
sion, 261 
Ceased to be a Principality, 133 
Cradle of Religious Freedom, 261 
Diploma Lepoldinum, 114 
European Importance, 113, 131 
History of, 42, 265 
Horse, 265 

Independence of, 50, 259, 260 
Inhabitants, 264 
Intrigues between Sultan and 

Emperor in, 68 
" Land of Sport," 263 
Many Rulers, 67 
Mineral Wealth, 262, 263, 278 
Mining Districts, 277 seq. 
Mountains, 14 
National Theatre and Museum 

founded, 116 
Picture of, 198 
Princes' exploits, 263 
Re- annexed to Hungary, 55 
Relics of Antiquity, 262 
Rhedey Family in, 64 seq. , 247, 249 
Situation and size, 262 
Villages and hamlets, 265 
Women famed for Beauty and 
Horsemanship, 104, 265 

Transylvanian Alps, Passes, 157, 158 

Transylvanian Diet, 173, 174 

Trencsen, 204 

Trencsen Castle, story of Well, 206 

Tubingen, palm tree at, 6 

Tubingen University founded, 5 

Tuhutiim, Duke, 16 

Turks, 261 

Attack Eger, 247, 248 
Attitude, 46, 47 
Capture Nagy Varad, 259 
Defeated at Vienna, 133, 154 
Expelled from Hungary, 282 
In Hungary, 48, 50, 51, 100, 247 

et passim 
Masters of Lowlands of Hungary, 

Menace to Christianity, 263 

Tusnad, health resort, 276 

Tver, Principality, 39 

Tyrol, 59 


Ugocsa County, 240 
Ujlaky, Michael, 199 
Uladislaus IV., King of Poland, 167 
Peace negotiations with Queen 

of Hungary, 63 
Uladislaus Jagello, Duke of 

Lithuania, King of Poland and 

Hungary, invaded Hungary, 

Ulpia Trajana, 268 
Ulrich I., Founder of Wiirtemberg 

House, 4, 6 
" Poor Conrad " revolt, 6 
Ulrich II., 4 
Ulrich III., 4 

Invaded Austria, 5 
Ulrich, Duke of Bohemia, 37, 38 
Ung River, 235 
Ungvar, Town, Castle and Bishop's 

Palace, 236 



Ungvar — continued 

Inhabitants, 236 

Origin of name, 235 
Upper Hungary, Aba territories in, 

Ural Mountains, 236 
Utrecht, Peace Congress at, 162, 163 

Vacz, Bishopric and Palace, 195 
Vag Valley, 204, 205 

Ruined Castles, 206 seq. 
Vajda Hunyad, Castle, 280 
Varila, Lord de, 218 
Varna, Battle of, 48 
Varna, Battle, 99 
Varpalota, 202 
Vatha, 21 
Vay Family, 244 
Vay de Vay, Count Peter, sketch of 

Career, 244 
Venetian Republic, 43 
Vertes, Monument to Vorosmarty, 

Veszprem, Cathedral and Palace, 
Queen Giselas gifts to, 202 
Via Traina, 284 
Vienna, 50, 157, 160, 225 
Bombarded, 56 
Captured, 49 
Court, 101 

Peace negotiations at, 66 
Revolution in, 60 
Siege of (1683), 54 
Turks defeated at, 133, 154 
Turks march to, 52 
Vienna, Treaty of, 112 
Viennese plotting against Hun- 
gary, 60 
Vilagos, Battle, 61 
Vilna University founded, 102 
Vineyards, 234, 235 
Visegrad Castle, 195 

Vizakna, health resort, 279 

Vizso River, 243 

Vladimir the Great, Duke, 36, 38 

Voisin, 165 

Vorosmarty, Poet: 

Monument to, 197 

Quoted on Alfold, 289 
Vorosto (Red Lake), 209 


Waiblingen, Castle, 2 

Waiwode of Transylvania, office of, 

Wallach, " Rumunyi," pride in 

Ancestry, 268 
Wallachia, 48, 157, 262 
Wallachia and Moldavia, 268 
Wallachians, 241, 260 

Costumes, 265 

In Transylvania, 236 

Submit to Hungary, 45 
Wallachs, 264 
Walter de Brienne, 191 
Walter the Penniless, 190 
War of Independence, 93, 152, 181 

Ended, 61 

Relics of, 270 
Wartburg Castle, 213, 215, 218 

" War of Wartburg," 214 
Washington, Mr., 162 
Weinsberg, siege of, 2 
Wekerle, Dr., 117, 178 
" Welf and Waiblingen," 2 
Welf , of Guelph, 1 

Besieged at Weinsberg, 2 

Conduct of Duchess, 2 
Wends, lands devastated, 3 
Wesselenyi Family, 167 seq. 

Ancestral Home, 167 

Palace at Kolozsvar, 270 
Wesselenyi, Ferencz I. settled in 
Transylvania, 167 

Ferencz II., Palatine of Hungary, 
167 aeq. 



Wesselenyi — Ferencz II. — contd. 
Capture of Murany, 168 
Conspiracy, 54, 169, 239 
Kata, Baroness, wife of Count 

Janos X., 96 
Miklos, settled in Transylvania, 

Miklos, Baron (1750-1808), 172 
Expedition to Poland, 172 
Marriage, 172 
Miklos, Baron (1796-1850), 59 

Sketch of career, 173 seq. 
Nicolas, Baron, Guardian of the 
Sacred Crown of St. Stephen, 
Stephanie, Baroness Istvan, 96, 
97, 175, 275, 
Estates in Bihar, 259 
Westphalia, Treaty of, 7 
White Lady of L6cse, 225 
White Mountains, Bohemians de- 
feated at, 7, 112 
William I., King of Wurtemberg, 9, 11 

Marriages, 9 and n. 
William III. and Queen Mary, 178 
Windischgratz, Prince, occupied 

Buda, 60 
Windmills, 287 
Wine, Hungarian, 234 
Wolfgang, Bishop, 26 
Wolves, 264 
Women, Siege of Four Thousand, 

70 seq. 
Wratislaw, King of Bohemia, 100 
Wurtemberg Duchy created a 
Kingdom, 8, 11, 189 
Invaded by French, 7 
Wurtemberg Family, 1 
Ancestral Castle, 3 
Connections by Marriage, 8 seq. 
Connection with Habsburgs, 1, 4, 

Counts of, Estates, 3, 4 
Inherited Swabia, 4 

Wurtemberg Family — continued 
Dukes of, 223. See Christian 
Related to House of Orleans, 10 


Yaroslav the Great, 17 n., 39 


Zahringen Family : 

Allied to Guelph and Hohen- 

staufen Dynasties, 1 
Zalan Legend, 237 
Zalan, Prince of Slavs and Bulgars, 

Territory, 236 
Zanzibar, 151 
Zara, 191 

Zast Monastery, 41 
Zemplen, County, 234 
Ziegenhayn Castle, 224 
Zigismond (Sigismund), King, rival 

of Ferdinand I. of Habsburg, 

50, 51, 101, 130, 167, 278 
Zips Country (Szepes), Thuringian 

Settlers, 208, 209, 212 and n. 
Zircz, Cistercian Monastery, 202 
Z61dt6 (Green Lake), 209 

Legend of, 210 
Zolyom Castle, 207 
Zrinyi Family, characteristics, 159 
Zrinyi, Ilona, wife of Ferencz 

Rakoczy I. and afterwards of 

Thokoli, 156 
Characteristics, 239 
Defended Fort of Munkacs 240 
Sketch of, 238 

Taken Prisoner, 54, 157, 158, 24^ 
Zrinyi, Miklos, hero of Sziget 

52, 239 
Zrinyi, Peter, Ban of Croati; 

169, 170, 239 
Zsak Castle, 259 
Zsibo Estate, 172 
Stud, 175 




JUN 6 1989 

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